As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on September 12, 2022

Registration No. 333-


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
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Energy Recovery, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware01-0616867
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1717 Doolittle Drive
San Leandro, CA 94577
(510) 483-7370
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Robert Yu Lang Mao
President and Chief Executive Officer
1717 Doolittle Drive
San Leandro, CA 94577
(510) 483-7370
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
Andrew D. Thorpe, Esq.
Gunderson Dettmer Stough Villeneuve Franklin & Hachigian, LLP
One Bush Plaza, Suite 1200
San Francisco, CA 94104
(415) 801-4852
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this Registration Statement becomes effective.
If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☑
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Large accelerated filer  ☑    Accelerated filer  ☐    Non-accelerated filer  ☐    
Smaller reporting company  ☐    Emerging growth company  ☐

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐





PROSPECTUS


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Energy Recovery, Inc.

Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Warrants
Purchase Contracts
Rights
Units

By this prospectus, we may offer and sell from time to time, in one or more offerings, shares of our common stock, shares of our preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, purchase contracts, rights, units or any combination thereof. Certain of these securities may be convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for our common stock or preferred stock or other securities of Energy Recovery, Inc. You should read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and free writing prospectus, together with any documents we incorporate by reference, before you invest in our securities. The prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may also add to, update, supplement or clarify information contained in this prospectus. This prospectus may not be used to sell our securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.
 
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “ERII.” On September 9, 2022, the last reported sales price of our common stock was $26.02 per share.




Investing in our common stock involves risks. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described or incorporated by reference under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus, and under similar headings in any amendment or supplement to this prospectus or as updated by any subsequent filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission that is incorporated by reference into this prospectus.




Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.


The date of this prospectus is September 12, 2022.












You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We have not authorized any other person to provide you with different or additional information. If anyone provides you with different or additional information, you should not rely on such information. You should assume that the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus is accurate as of the date on the front cover of this prospectus or the date of the document incorporated by reference. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since then.

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PART I

INFORMATION REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS


ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of an automatic “shelf” registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405, for the delayed offering and sale of securities pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Under this shelf process, we may periodically sell the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides a general description of the securities that we may offer. Each time we offer securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, and this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction where, or to any person to whom, it is unlawful to make such an offer or solicitation. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement is correct on any date after the respective dates of the prospectus and such prospectus supplement or supplements, as applicable, even though this prospectus and such prospectus supplement or supplements are delivered or securities are sold pursuant to the prospectus and such prospectus supplement or supplements at a later date. Since the respective dates of the prospectus contained in this registration statement and any accompanying prospectus supplement, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information, including information about us, contained in this prospectus. Therefore, before making your investment decision, you should carefully read:

this prospectus;
any applicable prospectus supplement, which (1) explains the specific terms of the securities being offered and (2) updates and changes information in this prospectus; and
the documents referred to in “Where You Can Find More Information” in this prospectus for information about us, including our financial statements.

Except as otherwise indicated herein or as the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to “Energy Recovery,” “the company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar references refer to Energy Recovery, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

This prospectus and the information incorporated herein by reference include trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or other companies. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Because it is a summary, it does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in our common stock. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the section entitled “Risk Factors” and the documents that we incorporate by reference into this prospectus, before making an investment decision.


Energy Recovery, Inc.
 
Overview

Energy Recovery, Inc. designs and manufactures solutions that make industrial processes more efficient and sustainable. Leveraging our pressure exchanger technology, which generates little to no emissions when operating, our solutions lower costs, save energy, reduce waste and minimize emissions for companies across a variety of industrial processes. The original product application of our technology, the PX® Pressure Exchanger® energy recovery device, was a major contributor to the advancement of seawater reverse osmosis desalination, significantly lowering the energy intensity and cost of water production globally. We have since introduced our pressure exchanger technology to the fast growing industrial wastewater filtration market, such as battery manufacturers, mining operations, and manufacturing plants that discharge wastewater with significant levels of metals and pollutants, as well as the commercial and industrial refrigeration market.

Company Information

Energy Recovery was incorporated in Virginia in 1992, reincorporated in Delaware in 2001, and became a public company in July 2008. Our common stock is currently listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “ERII.” Our headquarters and principal research, development, and manufacturing facility is located at 1717 Doolittle Drive, San Leandro, CA 94577, and our main telephone number is (510) 483-7370.

The Energy Recovery website is www.energyrecovery.com. We use the Investor Relations section of our website as a routine channel for distribution of important information, including news releases, presentations, and financial statements. The information contained on, or accessible through, our website or any other website is not part of this prospectus nor is it considered to be incorporated by reference herein or with any other filing we make with the SEC.

The Securities We May Offer

We may offer common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, purchase contracts, rights and/or units in one or more offerings and in any combination. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. A prospectus supplement, which we will provide each time we offer securities, will describe the specific amounts, prices and terms of these securities.

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein contain forward-looking statements. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends affecting the financial condition of our business. Forward-looking statements should not be read as a guarantee of future performance or results, and will not necessarily be accurate indications of the times at, or by, which such performance or results will be achieved. Forward-looking statements are based on information available at the time those statements are made and/or management’s good faith belief as of that time with respect to future events, and are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual performance or results to differ materially from those expressed in or suggested by the forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, the following:

our belief that the pressure exchanger is the industry standard for energy recovery in the seawater reverse osmosis desalination (“SWRO”) industry;
forecasted production and evaluations and judgments regarding supply chain matters, particularly in light of the global supply environment;
our belief that we have sufficient raw material and finished goods to mitigate supply chain issues;
our belief that new markets will grow in the water desalination market;
our belief that pressure exchanger technology can provide benefits to our customers, including the reduction of capital expenditures and energy use;
our belief that our pressure exchanger technology can address inefficiencies and waste within industrial systems and processes that involve high-pressure and low-pressure fluid flows;
our belief that our PX® Pressure Exchanger® (“PX”) has helped make SWRO an economically viable and more sustainable option in the production of potable water;
our belief that our PX® energy recovery devices are the most cost-effective energy recovery devices over time and will result in low life-cycle costs;
our belief that our hydraulic turbochargers (“Turbochargers”) deliver substantial savings and ease of integration into desalination systems;
our belief that our turbocharger devices have long operating lives;
our anticipation that markets not traditionally associated with desalination, such as the United States of America (the “U.S.”) and China will inevitably develop and provide further revenue growth opportunities;
our expectation that sales outside of the U.S. will remain a significant portion of our revenue;
our expectation that we will continue to rely on sales of our energy recovery devices in the desalination market for a substantial portion of our revenue, and that new desalination markets, including the United States (“U.S.”), will provide revenue opportunities to us;
our belief that our solutions offer a competitive advantage compared to our competitors’ solutions because our ERDs provide the lowest life-cycle cost and are, therefore, the most cost-effective ERD solutions for RO desalination applications;
our plan to improve our existing energy recovery devices and to develop and manufacture new and enhanced versions of these devices;
our objective of finding new applications for our technology and developing new products for use outside of desalination, including gas applications;
our expectation that, as we expand our international sales, a portion of our revenue could be denominated in foreign currencies and the impact of changes in exchange rates on our cash and cash equivalents and operating results;
our belief that leveraging our pressure exchanger technology will unlock new commercial opportunities in the future;
our belief that sales of carbon dioxide (“CO2”) refrigeration systems will increase in response to regulations and supermarkets’ search for safe natural refrigerants;
our belief that our current facilities will be adequate for the foreseeable future;
our ability to meet projected new product development dates, anticipated cost reduction targets or revenue growth objectives for new products;
our belief that by investing in research and development, we will be well positioned to continue to execute on our product strategy;
our expectation that our expenses for research and development and sales and marketing may increase as a result of diversification into markets outside of desalination;
our belief that levels of gross profit margin are sustainable to the extent that volume grows, we experience a favorable product mix, pricing remains stable and we continue to realize cost savings through production efficiencies and enhanced yields
the timing of our receipt of payment for products or services from our customers;
our belief that customers will accept and adopt our new products;
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our belief that our existing cash and cash equivalents, our short and/or long-term investments, and the ongoing cash generated from our operations, will be sufficient to meet our anticipated liquidity needs for the foreseeable future, with the exception of a decision to enter into an acquisition and/or fund investments in our latest technology arising from rapid market adoption that could require us to seek additional equity or debt financing;
our belief that we will be in compliance with the terms of the existing credit agreement, as amended, in the future;
our expectation that we will be able to enforce our intellectual property rights;
our expectation that the adoption of new accounting standards will not have a material impact on our financial position or results of operations;
our belief that our current facilities will be adequate for the foreseeable future;
the outcome of proceedings, lawsuits, disputes and claims;
the impact of losses due to indemnification obligations; and
the impact of changes in internal control over financial reporting.

Words such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “aims,” “projects,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “estimates,” “seeks,” variations of such words and similar expressions are also intended to identify such forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties, and assumptions that are difficult to predict; therefore, actual results may differ materially and adversely from those expressed in any forward-looking statements.

Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this prospectus. You should not put undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. We assume no obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect actual results, changes in assumptions or changes in other factors affecting forward-looking information, except to the extent required by applicable laws. If we update one or more forward-looking statements, no inference should be drawn that we will make additional updates with respect to those or other forward-looking statements.

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference and any prospectus supplement hereto. The risks described in these documents are not the only ones we face, but those that we consider to be material. There may be other unknown or unpredictable economic, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that could have material adverse effects on our future results. Past performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance, and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment. Please also read carefully the section titled “Forward-Looking Statements.”

USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless otherwise set forth in a prospectus supplement, the net proceeds from the sale of securities to which this prospectus relates and which we may offer, will be used for general corporate purposes. General corporate purposes may include stock repurchases, repayment of indebtedness, acquisitions, additions to working capital, capital expenditures and investments in our subsidiaries. Net proceeds may be temporarily invested prior to use. 

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following is a summary of the rights of our common stock and preferred stock and certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws as they are currently in effect, which we refer to in this section as our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, respectively. This summary does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by the provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, copies of which have been filed with the SEC.
 
As of the date of this prospectus, our authorized capital stock consists of 210,000,000 shares, of which 200,000,000 shares, par value $0.001 per share, are designated as common stock, and 10,000,000 shares, par value $0.001 per share, are designated as preferred stock. As of September 9, 2022, there were 55,959,690 shares of common stock outstanding. No shares of preferred stock are currently outstanding.

Common Stock

The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote per share on all matters to be voted on by our stockholders. Holders of common stock are entitled to receive such dividends as may be declared by the board of directors out of funds legally available therefor. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of common stock are entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of liabilities and distribution of the liquidation preferences of any then outstanding shares of preferred stock. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock.

Preferred Stock

Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our stockholders, to designate and issue up to the total number of authorized shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions granted to or imposed upon each such series of preferred stock, including dividend rights, dividend rate, conversion rights, voting rights, rights and terms of redemption, redemption prices, liquidation preference and sinking fund terms, any or all of which may be greater than or senior to the rights of the common stock. The issuance of preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and reduce the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments or payments upon liquidation. Such issuance could have the effect of decreasing the market price of the common stock. The issuance of preferred stock or even the ability to issue preferred stock could also have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change of control or other corporate action.

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Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law and Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws

Certain provisions of Delaware law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another party from acquiring control of us. These provisions, which are summarized below, are expected to discourage certain types of coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed, in part, to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with an unfriendly or unsolicited acquirer outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging such proposals, including proposals that are priced above the then-current market value of our common stock, because, among other reasons, the negotiation of such proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.
 
Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws include provisions that:

authorize the board of directors to issue, without further action by the stockholders, up to 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock;
require that any action to be taken by our stockholders be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting and not by written consent;
specify that special meetings of our stockholders can be called only by the board of directors, the chairman of the board of directors, the chief executive officer or the president;
establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder approvals to be brought before an annual meeting of our stockholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to the board of directors;
provide that directors may be removed only for cause;
provide that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by a majority of directors then in office, even though less than a quorum;
specify that no stockholder is permitted to cumulate votes at any election of directors; and
require a super-majority of votes to amend certain of the above-mentioned provisions.

Delaware Anti-Takeover Statute

We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law regulating corporate takeovers. In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly-held Delaware corporation from engaging, under certain circumstances, in a business combination with an interested stockholder for a period of three years following the date the person became an interested stockholder unless:

prior to such date, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;
upon completion of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding (but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder), (1) shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers and (2) shares owned by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or
at or subsequent to the date of the transaction that resulted in a stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the business combination is approved by the board of directors of the corporation and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 662/3% of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.

Generally, a business combination includes a merger, asset or stock sale, or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. An interested stockholder is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns or, within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status, did own 15% or more of a corporation’s outstanding voting stock. We expect the existence of this provision to have an anti-takeover effect with respect to transactions our board of directors does not approve in advance. We also anticipate that Section 203 may discourage business combinations or other attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares of common stock held by our stockholders.
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The provisions of Delaware law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws could have the effect of discouraging others from attempting hostile takeovers and, as a consequence, they may also inhibit temporary fluctuations in the market price of our common stock that often result from actual or rumored hostile takeover attempts. These provisions may also have the effect of preventing changes in our management. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish transactions that stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interests.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company. The transfer agent’s address is 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219, and the transfer agent’s telephone number is (800) 937-5449.
 
Listing

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “ERII.”

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

The debt securities will constitute either senior or subordinated debt of Energy Recovery. The debt securities that are sold may be exchangeable for and/or convertible into shares of common stock or any of the other securities that may be sold under this prospectus. The debt securities will be issued under one or more separate indentures between us and a designated trustee. We will include in a prospectus supplement the specific terms of each series of senior or subordinated debt securities being offered, including the terms, if any, on which a series of senior or subordinated debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for other securities. In addition, the material terms of any indenture, which will govern the rights of the holders of our senior or subordinated debt securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants to purchase our debt or equity securities or securities of third parties or other rights, including rights to receive payment in cash or securities based on the value, rate or price of one or more specified commodities, currencies, securities or indices, or any combination of the foregoing. Warrants may be issued independently or together with any other securities and may be attached to, or separate from, such securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a warrant agent. The terms of any warrants to be issued and a description of the material provisions of the applicable warrant agreement will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS

We may issue purchase contracts for the purchase or sale of:

debt or equity securities issued by us or securities of third parties, a basket of such securities, an index or indices of such securities or any combination of the above as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement;
currencies; or
commodities

Each purchase contract will entitle the holder thereof to purchase or sell, and obligate us to sell or purchase, on specified dates, such securities, currencies or commodities at a specified purchase price, which may be based on a formula, all as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. We may, however, satisfy our obligations, if any, with respect to any purchase contract by delivering the cash value of such purchase contract or the cash value of the property otherwise deliverable or, in the case of purchase contracts on underlying currencies, by delivering the underlying currencies, as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement will also specify the methods by which the holders may purchase or sell such securities, currencies or commodities and any acceleration, cancellation or termination provisions or other provisions relating to the settlement of a purchase contract.

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The purchase contracts may require us to make periodic payments to the holders thereof or vice versa, which payments may be deferred to the extent set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, and those payments may be unsecured or prefunded on some basis. The purchase contracts may require the holders thereof to secure their obligations in a specified manner to be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Alternatively, purchase contracts may require holders to satisfy their obligations thereunder when the purchase contracts are issued. Our obligation to settle such pre-paid purchase contracts on the relevant settlement date may constitute indebtedness. Accordingly, pre-paid purchase contracts will be issued under an indenture.

DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

As specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may issue rights to purchase one or more shares of common stock and/or shares of preferred stock, debt securities, warrants or units in any combination of such securities.

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

As specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may issue units consisting of one or more shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, debt securities or warrants or any combination of such securities.

FORM OF SECURITIES

Each preferred stock, debt security, warrant, purchase contract, right and unit will be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Certificated securities in definitive form and global securities will be issued in registered form. Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable. Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, purchase contracts, rights or units represented by these global securities. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor’s beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker-dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.

Global Securities

We may issue the registered preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, purchase contracts, rights and units in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more registered global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by registered global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a registered global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the registered global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees.

If not described below, any specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any securities to be represented by a registered global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.

Ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a registered global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some states may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in registered global securities.

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So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a registered global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the registered global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement. Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the registered global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the applicable certificate of designation, indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a registered global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that registered global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable certificate of designation, indenture, warrant agreement, purchase contract agreement, rights agreement or unit agreement. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a registered global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable certificate of designation, indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement, the depositary for the registered global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

Principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on debt securities, and any payments to holders with respect to preferred stock, warrants, purchase contracts, rights or units, represented by a registered global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the registered global security. None of the Company, any trustee, any warrant agent, unit agent, transfer agent or any other agent of the Company or such trustee, warrant agent, unit agent, transfer agent or other agent will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the registered global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.

We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a registered global security, upon receipt of any payment of principal, premium, interest, dividends or other distribution of underlying securities or other property to holders on that registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that registered global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of those participants.

Beneficial owners of securities generally will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the securities. However, if the depositary for any of these securities represented by a registered global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the registered global security that had been held by the depositary. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a registered global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee, warrant agent, unit agent or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary’s instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the registered global security that had been held by the depositary. In addition, we may at any time determine that the securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a global security and will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for such global security pursuant to the procedure described above.

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities being offered under this prospectus through agents, underwriters, or dealers, or directly to one or more purchasers, through a specific bidding or auction process or otherwise, or through a combination of any such methods of sale. In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

If any securities are sold pursuant to this prospectus by any persons other than us, we will, in a prospectus supplement, name the selling security holders, indicate the nature of any relationship such holders have had to us or any of our affiliates during the three years preceding such offering, state the amount of securities of the class owned by such security holder prior to the offering and the amount to be offered for the security holder’s account, and state the amount and (if one percent or more) the percentage of the class to be owned by such security holder after completion of the offering.

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We or any selling security holder may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. We will, in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act and describe any commissions that we or any selling security holder must pay. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis.

The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed price, or prices, which may be changed from time to time, at market prices prevailing at the time of sale, at prices related to such prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. We may also engage in “at the market” offerings, as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or sales made to or through a market maker other than on an exchange. Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.

The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the name of the agent or any underwriters, the public offering or purchase price and the proceeds we will receive from the sale of the securities, any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters, all other items constituting underwriting compensation, any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers and any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.

If any underwriters or agents are utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we and, if applicable, any selling security holder will enter into an underwriting agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.

If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which the prospectus is delivered, we and, if applicable, any selling security holder will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.

Remarketing firms, agents, underwriters and dealers may be entitled under agreements which they may enter into with us to indemnification by us and by any selling security holder against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates or any selling security holder in the ordinary course of business.

All securities we offer other than common stock will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities.

LEGAL MATTERS

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the validity of any securities offered hereby will be passed upon by Gunderson Dettmer Stough Villeneuve Franklin & Hachigian, LLP.

EXPERTS

The financial statements of Energy Recovery, Inc. incorporated by reference in this Prospectus, and the effectiveness of Energy Recovery, Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their reports. Such financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance upon the reports of such firm, given their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. You should rely only on information contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We have not authorized any person to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus.

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information from other documents we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents instead of having to repeat the information in this prospectus. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus, and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings (including those made after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to the effectiveness of such registration statement) we will make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Exchange Act until the termination of the offering of the shares covered by this prospectus (other than information furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K):

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 filed with the SEC on February 24, 2022;
the information specifically incorporated by reference into the 2021 Form 10-K from our definitive proxy statement relating to our 2022 annual meeting of stockholders, which was filed on April 25, 2022;
our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarters ended March 31, 2022 and June 30, 2022 filed with the SEC on May 4, 2022 and August 3, 2022, respectively;
our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 6, 2022, March 9, 2022, and June 10, 2022; and
the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on June 26, 2008, including any amendments or reports filed for the purposes of updating this description.

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or phone number:

Energy Recovery, Inc.
1717 Doolittle Drive
San Leandro, CA 94577
Attn: Investor Relations
(510) 483-7370

You should rely only on the information provided in this document or incorporated in this document by reference. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. You should not assume that the information in this document, including any information incorporated herein by reference, is accurate as of any date other than that on the front of the document. Any statement incorporated herein shall be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained herein modifies or supersedes such statement. Any statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

The following table sets forth the costs and expenses payable by the selling stockholders in connection with the offerings described in this registration statement. All of the amounts shown are estimates except the SEC registration fee.
SEC registration fee$*
Legal fees and expenses *
Accounting fees and expenses *
Financial printers fees and expenses *
Transfer agent and trustee fees and expenses *
Miscellaneous expenses *
Total$*
*    These fees are calculated based on the number of issuances and amount of securities offered and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that we may indemnify to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law any person made or threatened to be made a party to an action or proceeding, whether criminal, civil, administrative or investigative, by reason of the fact that he or she was a director or officer of the Company or serves or served at any other enterprise as a director or officer at our request. Further, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation contains provisions that limit the personal liability of our directors for monetary damages to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law.

In addition, as permitted by Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated bylaws provide that:
We will indemnify our directors and officers for serving us in those capacities or for serving other business enterprises at our request, to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. Delaware law provides that a corporation may indemnify such person if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed, to the best interests of the corporation and, with respect to any criminal proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe such person’s conduct was unlawful.
We may, in our discretion, indemnify employees and agents in those circumstances where indemnification is not required by law.
We are required to advance expenses, as incurred, to our directors and officers in connection with defending a proceeding, except that a director or officer must repay such advances if we ultimately determine that such person is not entitled to indemnification.
We will not be obligated pursuant to the bylaws to indemnify a director or officer with respect to proceedings initiated by that person, except with respect to proceedings authorized by our board of directors or brought to enforce a right to indemnification.
The rights conferred in the bylaws are not exclusive, and we are authorized to enter into indemnification agreements with our directors, officers, employees and agents and to obtain insurance to indemnify such persons.
We may not retroactively amend the bylaw provisions to reduce our indemnification obligations to our directors, officers, employees and agents.
We also maintain directors and officers insurance to insure such persons against certain liabilities.
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Item 16. Exhibits.
 
Exhibit
Number
Exhibit
1.1* Form of Underwriting Agreement
4.4*Form of Senior Debt Security
4.5*Form of Subordinated Debt Security
4.6*Form of Warrant Agreement
4.7*Form of Purchase Contract Agreement
4.8*Form of Rights Agreement
4.9*Form of Unit Agreement
4.10*Form of Certificate of Designation for Preferred Stock and Preferred Stock Certificate.
Opinion of Gunderson Dettmer Stough Villeneuve Franklin & Hachigian, LLP
Consent of Gunderson Dettmer Stough Villeneuve Franklin & Hachigian, LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)
*    To be filed by amendment or Form 8-K.

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Item 17. Undertakings.
 
(a) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i) To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement;

(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;
 
provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.
 
(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
 
(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

(A) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
 
(B) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

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(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities: The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;
 
(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

(b) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(c) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

(d) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.
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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of San Leandro, California, on September 12, 2022.
ENERGY RECOVERY, INC.
By: /s/ ROBERT YU LANG MAO
Name: Robert Yu Lang Mao
Title: President and Chief Executive Officer




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POWER OF ATTORNEY
 
KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Robert Yu Lang Mao, Joshua Ballard and William Yeung, or each of them, each acting alone, as his true and lawful agent, proxy and attorney-in-fact, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him and in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to (i) act on, sign, and file with the SEC any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement together with all schedules and exhibits thereto, (ii) act on, sign and file such certificates, instruments, agreements and other documents as may be necessary or appropriate in connection therewith, (iii) act on and file any supplement to any prospectus included in this registration statement or any such amendment or any subsequent registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, and (iv) take any and all actions which may be necessary or appropriate to be done, as fully for all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby approving, ratifying and confirming all that such agent, proxy and attorney-in-fact or any of his substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue thereof.
 
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated:
SignatureTitleDate
/s/ ROBERT YU LANG MAOChairman of the Board, President
and Chief Executive Officer
(Principal Executive Officer)
September 12, 2022
Robert Yu Lang Mao
 
/s/ JOSHUA BALLARDChief Financial Officer
(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)
September 12, 2022
Joshua Ballard
/s/ ALEXANDER J. BUEHLERDirectorSeptember 12, 2022
Alexander J. Buehler
/s/ JOAN K. CHOWDirectorSeptember 12, 2022
Joan K. Chow
/s/ SHERIF FODADirectorSeptember 12, 2022
Sherif Foda
/s/ ARVE HANSTVEITDirectorSeptember 12, 2022
Arve Hanstveit
/s/ LISA A. POLLINADirectorSeptember 12, 2022
Lisa A. Pollina
/s/ PAMELA L. TONDREAUDirectorSeptember 12, 2022
Pamela L. Tondreau


Exhibit 4.2






ENERGY RECOVERY, INC.,


as the Company


and


[●],
as Trustee


Senior Indenture


Dated as of [●]


1



ENERGY RECOVERY, INC.
Reconciliation and tie between Trust Indenture Act of 1939
and Senior Indenture

TRUST INDENTURE ACT SECTION
INDENTURE SECTION
Section 310
(a) (1)
7.11
(a) (2)
7.11
(b)
7.03
Section 311
7.03
Section 312
(a)
4.03
(b)
10.01
Section 313
(a)
7.06
Section 314
(a) (1), (2), (3)
4.05
(a) (4)
4.04
(c) (1)
10.03
(c) (2)
10.03
(e)
10.04
Section 315
(a)
7.01
(b)
7.05
(e)
6.12
Section 316
(a) (last sentence)
2.09
(a) (1) (A)
6.05
(a) (1) (B)
6.04
(b)
6.07
Section 317
(a) (1)
6.08
(a) (2)
6.09
(b)
8.02
Section 318
(a)
10.01
NOTE: This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be a part of the Indenture.

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Page

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Page

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SENIOR INDENTURE, dated as of [●], between Energy Recovery, Inc., a Delaware corporation, as the Company, and [●], as Trustee.

RECITALS OF THE COMPANY

WHEREAS, the Company has duly authorized the issue from time to time of its senior debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series (the “Securities”) up to such principal amount or amounts as may from time to time be authorized in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and to provide, among other things, for the authentication, delivery and administration thereof, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture; and

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid indenture and agreement according to its terms have been done;

NOW, THEREFORE:

In consideration of the premises and the purchases of the Securities by the holders thereof, the Company and the Trustee mutually covenant and agree for the equal and proportionate benefit of the respective holders from time to time of the Securities or of any and all series thereof and of the coupons, if any, appertaining thereto as follows:
ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Section 1.01. Definitions.

Affiliate” of any Person means any other Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such Person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlling”, “controlled by” and “under common control with”) when used with respect to any Person means the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of such Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise.

Agent” means any Registrar, Paying Agent, transfer agent or Authenticating Agent.

Authorized Newspaper” means a newspaper (which, in the case of The City of New York, will, if practicable, be The Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition) and in the case of London, will, if practicable, be the Financial Times (London Edition) and published in an official language of the country of publication customarily published at least once a day for at least five days in each calendar week and of general circulation in The City of New York or London, as applicable. If it shall be impractical in the opinion of the Trustee to make any publication of any notice required hereby in an Authorized Newspaper, any publication or other notice in lieu thereof which is made or given with the approval of the Trustee shall constitute a sufficient publication of such notice.

Board Resolution” means one or more resolutions of the board of directors of the Company or any authorized committee thereof, certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary to have been duly adopted and to be in full force and effect on the date of certification, and delivered to the Trustee.

Business Day” means any day, other than a Saturday or Sunday, that is neither a legal holiday nor a day on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law or regulation to close in The City of New York, with respect to any Security the interest on which is based on the offered quotations in the interbank Eurodollar market for dollar deposits in London, or with respect to Securities denominated in a specified currency other than United States dollars, in the principal financial center of the country of the specified currency.

Capital Lease” means, with respect to any Person, any lease of any property which, in conformity with GAAP, is required to be capitalized on the balance sheet of such Person.


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Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

Company” means the party named as such in the first paragraph of this Indenture until a successor replaces it pursuant to Article 5 of this Indenture and thereafter means the successor.

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which the corporate trust business of the Trustee shall, at any particular time, be administered, which office is, at the date of this Indenture, located at [•].

Default” means any event that is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in the form of one or more Registered Global Securities, the Person designated as Depositary by the Company pursuant to Section 2.03 until a successor Depositary shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depositary” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Depositary hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any such series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Registered Global Securities of that series.

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles in the United States as in effect as of the date hereof applied on a basis consistent with the principles, methods, procedures and practices employed in the preparation of the Company’s audited financial statements, including, without limitation, those set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as is approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession.

Holder” or “Securityholder” means the registered holder of any Security with respect to Registered Securities and the bearer of any Unregistered Security or any coupon appertaining thereto, as the case may be.

Indenture” means this Indenture as originally executed and delivered or as it may be amended or supplemented from time to time by one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture entered into pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture and shall include the forms and terms of the Securities of each series established as contemplated pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.03.

Officer” means, with respect to the Company, the chairman of the board of directors, the president or chief executive officer, any executive vice president, any senior vice president, any vice president, the chief financial officer, the general counsel, the treasurer or any assistant treasurer, or the secretary or any assistant secretary.

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed in the name of the Company by the chairman of the board of directors, the president or chief executive officer, an executive vice president, a senior vice president or a vice president, the chief financial officer, the treasurer or any assistant treasurer, or the secretary or any assistant secretary, and delivered to the Trustee. Each such certificate shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act, if applicable, and include (except as otherwise expressly provided in this Indenture) the statements provided in Section 10.04, if applicable.

Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion signed by legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel to the Company. Each such opinion shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act, if applicable, and include the statements provided in Section 10.04, if and to the extent required thereby.

Original Issue Date” of any Security (or portion thereof) means the earlier of (a) the date of authentication of such Security or (b) the date of any Security (or portion thereof) for which such Security was issued (directly or indirectly) on registration of transfer, exchange or substitution.


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Original Issue Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02.

Periodic Offering” means an offering of Securities of a series from time to time, the specific terms of which Securities, including, without limitation, the rate or rates of interest, if any, thereon, the stated maturity or maturities thereof and the redemption provisions, if any, with respect thereto, are to be determined by the Company or its agents upon the issuance of such Securities.

Person” means an individual, a corporation, a partnership, a limited liability company, an association, a trust or any other entity or organization, including a government or political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality thereof.

Principal” of a Security means the principal amount of, and, unless the context indicates otherwise, includes any premium payable on, the Security.

Registered Global Security” means a Security evidencing all or a part of a series of Registered Securities, issued to the Depositary for such series in accordance with Section 2.02, and bearing the legend prescribed in Section 2.02.

Registered Security” means any Security registered on the Security Register (as defined in Section 2.05).

Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee, shall mean an officer of the Trustee in the Corporate Trust Office, having direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture, and also, with respect to a particular matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of such officer’s knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

Securities” means any of the securities, as defined in the first paragraph of the recitals hereof, that are authenticated and delivered under this Indenture and, unless the context indicates otherwise, shall include any coupon appertaining thereto.

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, any corporation, association or other business entity of which a majority of the capital stock or other ownership interests having ordinary voting power to elect a majority of the board of directors or other persons performing similar functions are at the time directly or indirectly owned by such Person.

Trustee” means the party named as such in the first paragraph of this Indenture until a successor replaces it in accordance with the provisions of Article 7 and thereafter shall mean or include each Person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that series.

Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (15 U.S. Code §§ 77aaa-77bbbb), as it may be amended from time to time.

Unregistered Security” means any Security other than a Registered Security.


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U.S. Government Obligations” means securities that are (i) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America, and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt; provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation or the specific payment of interest on or principal of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.

Yield to Maturity” means, as the context may require, the yield to maturity (i) on a series of Securities or (ii) if the Securities of a series are issuable from time to time, on a Security of such series, calculated at the time of issuance of such series in the case of clause (i) or at the time of issuance of such Security of such series in the case of clause (ii), or, if applicable, at the most recent redetermination of interest on such series or on such Security, and calculated in accordance with the constant interest method or such other accepted financial practice as is specified in the terms of such Security.

Section 1.02. Other Definitions. Each of the following terms is defined in the section set forth opposite such term:

Term
Section
Authenticating Agent
2.02
Cash Transaction
7.03
Dollars
4.02
Event of Default
6.01
Judgment Currency
10.15(a)
mandatory sinking fund payment
3.05
optional sinking fund payment
3.05
Paying Agent
2.05
record date
2.04
Registrar
2.05
Required Currency
10.15(a)
Security Register
2.05
self-liquidating paper
7.03
sinking fund payment date
3.05
tranche
2.14

Section 1.03. Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act. Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the Trust Indenture Act, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the Trust Indenture Act have the following meanings:

indenture securities” means the Securities;

indenture security holder” means a Holder or a Securityholder;

indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture;

indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee; and

obligor” on the indenture securities means the Company or any other obligor on the Securities.


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All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the Trust Indenture Act, defined by reference in the Trust Indenture Act to another statute or defined by a rule of the Commission and not otherwise defined herein have the meanings assigned to them therein.

Section 1.04. Rules of Construction. Unless the context otherwise requires:

(a)an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;
(b)words in the singular include the plural, and words in the plural include the singular;
(c)“herein,” “hereof” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision;
(d)all references to Sections or Articles refer to Sections or Articles of this Indenture unless otherwise indicated; and
(e)use of masculine, feminine or neuter pronouns should not be deemed a limitation, and the use of any such pronouns should be construed to include, where appropriate, the other pronouns.

ARTICLE 2

THE SECURITIES

Section 2.01. Form and Dating. The Securities of each series shall be substantially in such form or forms (not inconsistent with this Indenture) as shall be established by or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions or in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in each case with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as are required or permitted by this Indenture and may have imprinted or otherwise reproduced thereon such legend or legends or endorsements, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, as may be required to comply with any law, or with any rules of any securities exchange or usage, all as may be determined by the Officers executing such Securities as evidenced by their execution of the Securities. Unless otherwise so established, Unregistered Securities shall have coupons attached.

Section 2.02. Execution and Authentication. Two Officers shall execute the Securities and one Officer shall execute the coupons appertaining thereto for the Company by facsimile or manual signature in the name and on behalf of the Company. The seal of the Company, if any, shall be reproduced on the Securities. If an Officer whose signature is on a Security or coupon appertaining thereto no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security and such coupon shall nevertheless be valid.

The Trustee, at the expense of the Company, may appoint an authenticating agent (the “Authenticating Agent”) to authenticate Securities. The Authenticating Agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such Authenticating Agent.

A Security and the coupons appertaining thereto shall not be valid until the Trustee or Authenticating Agent manually signs the certificate of authentication on the Security or on the Security to which such coupon appertains by an authorized officer. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security or the Security to which the coupon appertains has been authenticated under this Indenture.

At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series having attached thereto appropriate coupons, if any, executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication together with the applicable documents referred to below in this Section, and the Trustee shall thereupon authenticate and deliver such Securities to or upon the written order of the Company. In authenticating any Securities of a series, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive prior to the authentication of any Securities of such series, and (subject to Article 7) shall be fully protected in relying upon, unless and until such documents have been superseded or revoked:


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(a)any Board Resolution and/or executed supplemental indenture referred to in Sections 2.01 and 2.03 by or pursuant to which the forms and terms of the Securities of that series were established;
(b)an Officer’s Certificate setting forth the form or forms and terms of the Securities, stating that the form or forms and terms of the Securities of such series have been, or, in the case of a Periodic Offering, will be when established in accordance with such procedures as shall be referred to therein, established in compliance with this Indenture; and
(c)an Opinion of Counsel substantially to the effect that the form or forms and terms of the Securities of such series have been, or, in the case of a Periodic Offering, will be when established in accordance with such procedures as shall be referred to therein, established in compliance with this Indenture and that the supplemental indenture, to the extent applicable, and Securities have been duly authorized and, if executed and authenticated in accordance with the provisions of the Indenture and delivered to and duly paid for by the purchasers thereof on the date of such opinion, would be entitled to the benefits of the Indenture and would be valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their respective terms, subject to bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, receivership, moratorium and other similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally, general principles of equity, and covering such other matters as shall be specified therein and as shall be reasonably requested by the Trustee.
The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner which is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

Notwithstanding the provisions of Sections 2.01 and 2.02, if, in connection with a Periodic Offering, all Securities of a series are not to be originally issued at one time, it shall not be necessary to deliver the Board Resolution otherwise required pursuant to Section 2.01 or the written order, Officer’s Certificate and Opinion of Counsel otherwise required pursuant to Section 2.02 at or prior to the authentication of each Security of such series if such documents are delivered at or prior to the authentication upon original issuance of the first Security of such series to be issued.

With respect to Securities of a series offered in a Periodic Offering, the Trustee may rely, as to the authorization by the Company of any of such Securities, the forms and terms thereof and the legality, validity, binding effect and enforceability thereof, upon the Opinion of Counsel and the other documents delivered pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.02, as applicable, in connection with the first authentication of Securities of such series.

If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.03 that the Securities of a series or a portion thereof are to be issued in the form of one or more Registered Global Securities, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver one or more Registered Global Securities that (i) shall represent and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of all of the Securities of such series issued in such form and not yet cancelled, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary for such Registered Global Security or Securities or the nominee of such Depositary, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to such Depositary or its custodian or pursuant to such Depositary’s instructions and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Securities in definitive registered form, this Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary to the nominee of the Depositary or by a nominee of the Depositary to the Depositary or another nominee of the Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

Section 2.03. Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series. The aggregate principal amount of Securities which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.

The Securities may be issued in one or more series. There shall be established in or pursuant to Board Resolution or one or more indentures supplemental hereto, prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, subject to the last sentence of this Section 2.03:

(a)the designation of the Securities of the series, which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from the Securities of all other series;

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(b)any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture and any limitation on the ability of the Company to increase such aggregate principal amount after the initial issuance of the Securities of that series (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, or upon redemption of, other Securities of the series pursuant hereto);
(c)the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable (which date or dates may be fixed or extendible);
(d)the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, on which such interest shall be payable and (in the case of Registered Securities) on which a record shall be taken for the determination of Holders to whom interest is payable and/or the method by which such rate or rates or date or dates shall be determined;
(e)if other than as provided in Section 4.02, the place or places where the principal of and any interest on Securities of the series shall be payable, any Registered Securities of the series may be surrendered for exchange, notices, demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of the series and this Indenture may be served and notice to Holders may be published;
(f)the right, if any, of the Company to redeem Securities of the series, in whole or in part, at its option and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and any terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series may be so redeemed, pursuant to any sinking fund or otherwise;
(g)the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem, purchase or repay Securities of the series pursuant to any mandatory redemption, sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the price or prices at which and the period or periods within which and any of the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series shall be redeemed, purchased or repaid, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;
(h)if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which Securities of the series shall be issuable;
(i)if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;
(j)if other than the coin or currency in which the Securities of the series are denominated, the coin or currency in which payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of the series shall be payable or if the amount of payments of principal of and/or interest on the Securities of the series may be determined with reference to an index based on a coin or currency other than that in which the Securities of the series are denominated, the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;
(k)if other than the currency of the United States of America, the currency or currencies, including composite currencies, in which payment of the Principal of and interest on the Securities of the series shall be payable, and the manner in which any such currencies shall be valued against other currencies in which any other Securities shall be payable;
(l)whether the Securities of the series or any portion thereof will be issuable as Registered Securities (and if so, whether such Securities will be issuable as Registered Global Securities) or Unregistered Securities (with or without coupons) (and if so, whether such Securities will be issued in temporary or permanent global form), or any combination of the foregoing, any restrictions applicable to the offer, sale or delivery of Unregistered Securities or the payment of interest thereon and, if other than as provided herein, the terms upon which Unregistered Securities of any series may be exchanged for Registered Securities of such series and vice versa;
(m)whether the Securities of the series may be exchangeable for and/or convertible into the common stock of the Company or any other security;
(n)whether and under what circumstances the Company will pay additional amounts on the Securities of the series held by a person who is not a U.S. person in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge withheld or deducted and, if so, whether the Company will have the option to redeem such Securities rather than pay such additional amounts;
(o)if the Securities of the series are to be issuable in definitive form (whether upon original issue or upon exchange of a temporary Security of such series) only upon receipt of certain certificates or other documents or satisfaction of other conditions, the form and terms of such certificates, documents or conditions;

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(p)any trustees, depositaries, authenticating or paying agents, transfer agents or the registrar or any other agents with respect to the Securities of the series;
(q)provisions, if any, for the defeasance of the Securities of the series (including provisions permitting defeasance of less than all Securities of the series), which provisions may be in addition to, in substitution for, or in modification of (or any combination of the foregoing) the provisions of Article 8;
(r)if the Securities of the series are issuable in whole or in part as one or more Registered Global Securities or Unregistered Securities in global form, the identity of the Depositary or common Depositary for such Registered Global Security or Securities or Unregistered Securities in global form;
(s)any other Events of Default or covenants with respect to the Securities of the series; and
(t)any other terms of the Securities of the series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture).
All Securities of any one series and coupons, if any, appertaining thereto shall be substantially identical, except in the case of Registered Securities as to date and denomination, except in the case of any Periodic Offering and except as may otherwise be provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution referred to above or as set forth in any such indenture supplemental hereto. All Securities of any one series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to such Board Resolution or in any such indenture supplemental hereto and any forms and terms of Securities to be issued from time to time may be completed and established from time to time prior to the issuance thereof by procedures described in such Board Resolution or supplemental indenture.

Unless otherwise expressly provided with respect to a series of Securities, the aggregate principal amount of a series of Securities may be increased and additional Securities of such series may be issued up to the maximum aggregate principal amount authorized with respect to such series as increased.

Section 2.04. Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest. The Securities of each series shall be issuable as Registered Securities or Unregistered Securities in denominations established as contemplated by Section 2.03 or, if not so established with respect to Securities of any series, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The Securities of each series shall be numbered, lettered or otherwise distinguished in such manner or in accordance with such plan as the Officers of the Company executing the same may determine, as evidenced by their execution thereof.

Unless otherwise specified with respect to a series of Securities, each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. The Securities of each series shall bear interest, if any, from the date, and such interest and shall be payable on the dates, established as contemplated by Section 2.03.

The person in whose name any Registered Security of any series is registered at the close of business on any record date applicable to a particular series with respect to any interest payment date for such series shall be entitled to receive the interest, if any, payable on such interest payment date notwithstanding any transfer or exchange of such Registered Security subsequent to the record date and prior to such interest payment date, except if and to the extent the Company shall default in the payment of the interest due on such interest payment date for such series, in which case the provisions of Section 2.13 shall apply. The term “record date” as used with respect to any interest payment date (except a date for payment of defaulted interest) for the Securities of any series shall mean the date specified as such in the terms of the Registered Securities of such series established as contemplated by Section 2.03, or, if no such date is so established, the fifteenth day next preceding such interest payment date, whether or not such record date is a Business Day.

Section 2.05. Registrar and Paying Agent; Agents Generally. The Company shall maintain an office or agency where Securities may be presented for registration, registration of transfer or for exchange (the “Registrar”) and an office or agency where Securities may be presented for payment (the “Paying Agent”), which shall be in the Borough of Manhattan, The City of New York. The Company shall cause the Registrar to keep a register of the Registered Securities and of their registration, transfer and exchange (the “Security Register”). The Company may have one or more additional Paying Agents or transfer agents with respect to any series.


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The Company shall enter into an appropriate agency agreement with any Agent not a party to this Indenture. The agreement shall implement the provisions of this Indenture and the Trust Indenture Act that relate to such Agent. The Company shall give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address of any Agent and any change in the name or address of an Agent. If the Company fails to maintain a Registrar or Paying Agent, the Trustee shall act as such. The Company may remove any Agent upon written notice to such Agent and the Trustee; provided that no such removal shall become effective until (i) the acceptance of an appointment by a successor Agent to such Agent as evidenced by an appropriate agency agreement entered into by the Company and such successor Agent and delivered to the Trustee or (ii) notification to the Trustee that the Trustee shall serve as such Agent until the appointment of a successor Agent in accordance with clause (i) of this proviso. The Company or any affiliate of the Company may act as Paying Agent or Registrar; provided that neither the Company nor an affiliate of the Company shall act as Paying Agent in connection with the defeasance of the Securities or the discharge of this Indenture under Article 8.

The Company initially appoints the Trustee as Registrar, Paying Agent and Authenticating Agent. If, at any time, the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Registrar shall make available to the Trustee ten days prior to each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may reasonably request the names and addresses of the Holders as they appear in the Security Register.

Section 2.06. Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust. Not later than 10:00 a.m. New York City time on each due date or, in the case of Unregistered Securities, 10:00 a.m. New York City time on the Business Day prior to the due date, of any Principal or interest on any Securities, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money in immediately available funds sufficient to pay such Principal or interest. The Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that such Paying Agent shall hold in trust for the benefit of the Holders of such Securities or the Trustee all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of Principal of and interest on such Securities and shall promptly notify the Trustee of any default by the Company in making any such payment. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee and account for any funds disbursed, and the Trustee may at any time during the continuance of any payment default, upon written request to a Paying Agent, require such Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee and to account for any funds disbursed. Upon doing so, the Paying Agent shall have no further liability for the money so paid over to the Trustee. If the Company or any affiliate of the Company acts as Paying Agent, it will, on or before each due date of any Principal of or interest on any Securities, segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of the Holders thereof a sum of money sufficient to pay such Principal or interest so becoming due until such sum of money shall be paid to such Holders or otherwise disposed of as provided in this Indenture, and will promptly notify the Trustee in writing of its action or failure to act as required by this Section.

Section 2.07. Transfer and Exchange. Unregistered Securities (except for any temporary global Unregistered Securities) and coupons (except for coupons attached to any temporary global Unregistered Securities) shall be transferable by delivery.


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At the option of the Holder thereof, Registered Securities of any series (other than a Registered Global Security, except as set forth below) may be exchanged for a Registered Security or Registered Securities of such series and tenor having authorized denominations and an equal aggregate principal amount, upon surrender of such Registered Securities to be exchanged at the agency of the Company that shall be maintained for such purpose in accordance with Section 2.05 and upon payment, if the Company shall so require, of the charges hereinafter provided. If the Securities of any series are issued in both registered and unregistered form, except as otherwise established pursuant to Section 2.03, at the option of the Holder thereof, Unregistered Securities of any series may be exchanged for Registered Securities of such series and tenor having authorized denominations and an equal aggregate principal amount, upon surrender of such Unregistered Securities to be exchanged at the agency of the Company that shall be maintained for such purpose in accordance with Section 4.02, with, in the case of Unregistered Securities that have coupons attached, all unmatured coupons and all matured coupons in default thereto appertaining, and upon payment, if the Company shall so require, of the charges hereinafter provided. At the option of the Holder thereof, if Unregistered Securities of any series, maturity date, interest rate and original issue date are issued in more than one authorized denomination, except as otherwise established pursuant to Section 2.03, such Unregistered Securities may be exchanged for Unregistered Securities of such series and tenor having authorized denominations and an equal aggregate principal amount, upon surrender of such Unregistered Securities to be exchanged at the agency of the Company that shall be maintained for such purpose in accordance with Section 4.02, with, in the case of Unregistered Securities that have coupons attached, all unmatured coupons and all matured coupons in default thereto appertaining, and upon payment, if the Company shall so require, of the charges hereinafter provided. Registered Securities of any series may not be exchanged for Unregistered Securities of such series. Whenever any Securities are so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, the Securities which the Holder making the exchange is entitled to receive.

Upon surrender for registration of transfer of any Registered Security of a series at the agency of the Company that shall be maintained for that purpose in accordance with Section 2.05 and upon payment, if the Company shall so require, of the charges hereinafter provided, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in the name of the designated transferee or transferees, one or more new Registered Securities of the same series, of any authorized denominations and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

All Registered Securities presented for registration of transfer, exchange, redemption or payment shall be duly endorsed by, or be accompanied by a written instrument or instruments of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Trustee duly executed by, the holder or his attorney duly authorized in writing.

The Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities. No service charge shall be made for any such transaction.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Section 2.07, unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Securities in definitive registered form, a Registered Global Security representing all or a portion of the Securities of a series may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary for such series to a nominee of such Depositary or by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by such Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary for such series or a nominee of such successor Depositary.

If at any time the Depositary for any Registered Global Securities of any series notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Registered Global Securities or if at any time the Depositary for such Registered Global Securities shall no longer be eligible under applicable law, the Company shall appoint a successor Depositary eligible under applicable law with respect to such Registered Global Securities. If a successor Depositary eligible under applicable law for such Registered Global Securities is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such ineligibility, the Company will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of the Company’s order for the authentication and delivery of definitive Registered Securities of such series and tenor, will authenticate and deliver Registered Securities of such series and tenor, in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of such Registered Global Securities, in exchange for such Registered Global Securities.


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The Company may at any time and in its sole discretion and subject to the procedures of the Depositary determine that any Registered Global Securities of any series shall no longer be maintained in global form. In such event the Company will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of the Company’s order for the authentication and delivery of definitive Registered Securities of such series and tenor, will authenticate and deliver, Registered Securities of such series and tenor in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of such Registered Global Securities, in exchange for such Registered Global Securities.

Any time the Registered Securities of any series are not in the form of Registered Global Securities pursuant to the preceding two paragraphs, the Company agrees to supply the Trustee with a reasonable supply of certificated Registered Securities without the legend required by Section 2.02 and the Trustee agrees to hold such Registered Securities in safekeeping until authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.

If established by the Company pursuant to Section 2.03 with respect to any Registered Global Security, the Depositary for such Registered Global Security may surrender such Registered Global Security in exchange in whole or in part for Registered Securities of the same series and tenor in definitive registered form on such terms as are acceptable to the Company and such Depositary. Thereupon, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, without service charge:

(a)to the Person specified by such Depositary new Registered Securities of the same series and tenor, of any authorized denominations as requested by such Person, in an aggregate principal amount equal to and in exchange for such Person’s beneficial interest in the Registered Global Security; and
(b)to such Depositary a new Registered Global Security in a denomination equal to the difference, if any, between the principal amount of the surrendered Registered Global Security and the aggregate principal amount of Registered Securities authenticated and delivered pursuant to clause (a) above.

Registered Securities issued in exchange for a Registered Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.07 shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary for such Registered Global Security, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee or an agent of the Company or the Trustee. The Trustee or such agent shall deliver such Securities to or as directed by the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

All Securities issued upon any transfer or exchange of Securities shall be valid obligations of the Company, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such transfer or exchange.

Notwithstanding anything herein or in the forms or terms of any Securities to the contrary, none of the Company, the Trustee or any agent of the Company or the Trustee shall be required to exchange any Unregistered Security for a Registered Security if such exchange would result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to the Company (such as, for example, the inability of the Company to deduct from its income, as computed for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the interest payable on the Unregistered Securities) under then applicable U.S. federal income tax laws. The Trustee and any such agent shall be entitled to rely on an Officer’s Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel in determining such result.

The Registrar shall not be required (i) to issue, authenticate, register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any series for a period of 15 days before a selection of such Securities to be redeemed or (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Security selected for redemption in whole or in part.

Section 2.08. Replacement Securities. If any mutilated Security or a Security with a mutilated coupon appertaining to it is surrendered to the Trustee, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in exchange for such mutilated Security or in exchange for the Security to which a mutilated coupon appertains, a new Security of the same series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, with coupons corresponding to the coupons, if any, appertaining to such mutilated Security or to the Security to which such mutilated coupon appertains.


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If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Trustee (i) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security or coupon and (ii) such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them and any agent of any of them harmless, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Trustee that such Security or coupon has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security or in exchange for the Security to which a destroyed, lost or stolen coupon appertains (with all appurtenant coupons not destroyed, lost or stolen), a new Security of the same series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, with coupons corresponding to the coupons, if any, appertaining to such destroyed, lost or stolen Security or to the Security to which such destroyed, lost or stolen coupon appertains.

In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security or coupon has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security or coupon (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security or coupon) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them and any agent of any of them harmless, and in the case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence satisfactory to the Company and the Trustee and any agent of them of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and the ownership thereof; provided, however, that the Principal of and any interest on Unregistered Securities shall, except as otherwise provided in Section 4.02 be payable only at an office or agency located outside the United States of America.

Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section, the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

Every new Security of any series, with its coupons, if any, issued pursuant to this Section in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security or in exchange for any mutilated Security, or in exchange for a Security to which a mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen coupon appertains, shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security and its coupons, if any, or the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen coupon shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and any such new Security and coupons, if any, shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that series and their coupons, if any, duly issued hereunder.

The provisions of this Section are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities or coupons.

Section 2.09. Outstanding Securities. Securities outstanding at any time are all Securities that have been authenticated by the Trustee except for those cancelled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation, those described in this Section as not outstanding and those that have been defeased pursuant to Section 8.05.

If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.08, it ceases to be outstanding unless and until the Trustee and the Company receive proof satisfactory to them that the replaced Security is held by a holder in due course.

If the Paying Agent (other than the Company or an affiliate of the Company) holds on the maturity date or any redemption date or date for repurchase of the Securities money sufficient to pay Securities payable or to be redeemed or repurchased on that date, then on and after that date such Securities cease to be outstanding and interest on them shall cease to accrue.


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A Security does not cease to be outstanding because the Company or one of its affiliates holds such Security, provided, however, that, in determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of the outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, Securities owned by the Company or any affiliate of the Company shall be disregarded and deemed not to be outstanding, except that, in determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying upon any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, only Securities as to which a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has received written notice to be so owned shall be so disregarded. Any Securities so owned which are pledged by the Company, or by any affiliate of the Company, as security for loans or other obligations, otherwise than to another such affiliate of the Company, shall be deemed to be outstanding, if the pledgee is entitled pursuant to the terms of its pledge agreement and is free to exercise in its or his discretion the right to vote such securities, uncontrolled by the Company or by any such affiliate.

Section 2.10. Temporary Securities. Until definitive Securities of any series are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate temporary Securities of such series. Temporary Securities of any series shall be substantially in the form of definitive Securities of such series but may have insertions, substitutions, omissions and other variations determined to be appropriate by the Officers executing the temporary Securities, as evidenced by their execution of such temporary Securities. If temporary Securities of any series are issued, the Company will cause definitive Securities of such series to be prepared without unreasonable delay. After the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the temporary Securities of such series shall be exchangeable for definitive Securities of such series and tenor upon surrender of such temporary Securities at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose pursuant to Section 4.02, without charge to the Holder. Upon surrender for cancellation of any one or more temporary Securities of any series the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a like principal amount of definitive Securities of such series and tenor and authorized denominations. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of any series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series.

Section 2.11. Cancellation. The Company at any time may deliver to the Trustee for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated and delivered hereunder which the Company may have acquired in any manner whatsoever, and may deliver to the Trustee for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated hereunder which the Company has not issued and sold. The Registrar, any transfer agent and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee shall cancel and dispose of in accordance with its customary procedures all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment or cancellation and shall deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company. The Company may not issue new Securities to replace Securities it has paid in full or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

Section 2.12. CUSIP Numbers. The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” and “CINS” numbers (if then generally in use), and the Trustee shall use CUSIP numbers or CINS numbers, as the case may be, in notices of redemption or exchange as a convenience to Holders and no representation shall be made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of redemption or exchange.

Section 2.13. Defaulted Interest. If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on the Registered Securities, it shall pay, or shall deposit with the Paying Agent money in immediately available funds sufficient to pay, the defaulted interest plus (to the extent lawful) any interest payable on the defaulted interest (as may be specified in the terms thereof, established pursuant to Section 2.03) to the Persons who are Holders on a subsequent special record date, which shall mean the 15th day next preceding the date fixed by the Company for the payment of defaulted interest, whether or not such day is a Business Day. At least 15 days before such special record date, the Company shall mail to each Holder of such Registered Securities and to the Trustee a notice that states the special record date, the payment date and the amount of defaulted interest to be paid.


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Section 2.14. Series May Include Tranches. A series of Securities may include one or more tranches (each a “tranche”) of Securities, including Securities issued in a Periodic Offering. The Securities of different tranches may have one or more different terms, including authentication dates and public offering prices, but all the Securities within each such tranche shall have identical terms, including authentication date and public offering price. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture, with respect to Sections 2.02 (other than the fourth, sixth and seventh paragraphs thereof) through 2.04, 2.07, 2.08, 2.10, 3.01 through 3.05, 4.02, 6.01 through 6.14, 8.01 through 8.07, 9.02 and Section 10.07, if any series of Securities includes more than one tranche, all provisions of such sections applicable to any series of Securities shall be deemed equally applicable to each tranche of any series of Securities in the same manner as though originally designated a series unless otherwise provided with respect to such series or tranche pursuant to Section 2.03. In particular, and without limiting the scope of the next preceding sentence, any of the provisions of such sections which provide for or permit action to be taken with respect to a series of Securities shall also be deemed to provide for and permit such action to be taken instead only with respect to Securities of one or more tranches within that series (and such provisions shall be deemed satisfied thereby), even if no comparable action is taken with respect to Securities in the remaining tranches of that series.

ARTICLE 3

REDEMPTION

Section 3.01. Applicability of Article. The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to the Securities of any series which are redeemable before their maturity or to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.03 for Securities of such series.

Section 3.02. Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions. Notice of redemption to the Holders of Registered Securities of any series to be redeemed as a whole or in part at the option of the Company shall be given by mailing notice of such redemption by first class mail, postage prepaid, at least 30 days and not more than 60 days prior to the date fixed for redemption, unless a shorter period is specified in the securities to be redeemed, to such Holders of Registered Securities of such series at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the registry books. Notice of redemption to the Holders of Unregistered Securities of any series to be redeemed as a whole or in part who have filed their names and addresses with the Trustee pursuant to Section 313(c)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act, shall be given by mailing notice of such redemption, unless a shorter period is specified in the securities to be redeemed, by first class mail, postage prepaid, at least 30 days and not more than 60 days prior to the date fixed for redemption, to such Holders at such addresses as were so furnished to the Trustee (and, in the case of any such notice given by the Company, the Trustee shall make such information available to the Company for such purpose). Notice of redemption to all other Holders of Unregistered Securities of any series to be redeemed as a whole or in part shall be published in an Authorized Newspaper in The City of New York, or with respect to any Security the interest on which is based on the offered quotations in the interbank Eurodollar market for dollar deposits in an Authorized Newspaper in London, in each case, once in each of three successive calendar weeks, the first publication to be not less than 30 days nor more than 60 days prior to the date fixed for redemption. Any notice which is mailed or published in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the Holder receives the notice. Failure to give notice by mail, or any defect in the notice to the Holder of any Security of a series designated for redemption as a whole or in part shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Security of such series.

The notice of redemption to each such Holder shall specify the principal amount of each Security of such series held by such Holder to be redeemed, the CUSIP numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, the date fixed for redemption, the redemption price, or if not then ascertainable, the manner of calculation thereof, the place or places of payment, that payment will be made upon presentation and surrender of such Securities and, in the case of Securities with coupons attached thereto, of all coupons appertaining thereto maturing after the date fixed for redemption, that such redemption is pursuant to the mandatory or optional sinking fund, or both, if such be the case, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in such notice and that on and after said date interest thereon or on the portions thereof to be redeemed will cease to accrue. In case any Security of a series is to be redeemed in part only, the notice of redemption shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed and shall state that on and after the date fixed for redemption, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series and tenor in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.


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The notice of redemption of Securities of any series to be redeemed at the option of the Company shall be given by the Company or, at the Company’s request, by the Trustee in the name and at the expense of the Company.

On or before 10:00 a.m. New York City time on the redemption date or, in the case of Unregistered Securities, on or before 10:00 a.m. New York City time on the Business Day prior to the redemption date specified in the notice of redemption given as provided in this Section, the Company will deposit with the Trustee or with one or more Paying Agents (or, if the Company is acting as its own Paying Agent, set aside, segregate and hold in trust as provided in Section 2.06) an amount of money sufficient to redeem on the redemption date all the Securities of such series so called for redemption at the appropriate redemption price, together with accrued interest to the date fixed for redemption. If all of the outstanding Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company will deliver to the Trustee at least 10 days prior to the last date on which notice of redemption may be given to Holders pursuant to the first paragraph of this Section 3.02 (or such shorter period as shall be acceptable to the Trustee) an Officer’s Certificate stating that all such Securities are to be redeemed. If less than all the outstanding Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company will deliver to the Trustee at least 15 days prior to the last date on which notice of redemption may be given to Holders pursuant to the first paragraph of this Section 3.02 (or such shorter period as shall be acceptable to the Trustee) an Officer’s Certificate stating the aggregate principal amount of such Securities to be redeemed. In the case of any redemption of Securities (a) prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, or (b) pursuant to an election of the Company which is subject to a condition specified in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall deliver to the Trustee, prior to the giving of any notice of redemption to Holders pursuant to this Section, an Officer’s Certificate evidencing compliance with such restriction or condition.

If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select, pro rata, by lot or in such manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair, Securities of such series to be redeemed in whole or in part. Securities may be redeemed in part in principal amounts equal to authorized denominations for Securities of such series. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company in writing of the Securities of such series selected for redemption and, in the case of any Securities of such series selected for partial redemption, the principal amount thereof to be redeemed. For all purposes of this Indenture, unless the context otherwise requires, all provisions relating to the redemption of Securities shall relate, in the case of any Security redeemed or to be redeemed only in part, to the portion of the principal amount of such Security which has been or is to be redeemed.

Section 3.03. Payment of Securities Called for Redemption. If notice of redemption has been given as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption, and on and after such date (unless the Company shall default in the payment of such Securities at the redemption price, together with interest accrued to such date) interest on the Securities or portions of Securities so called for redemption shall cease to accrue, and the unmatured coupons, if any, appertaining thereto shall be void and, except as provided in Sections 7.12 and 8.02, such Securities shall cease from and after the date fixed for redemption to be entitled to any benefit under this Indenture, and the Holders thereof shall have no right in respect of such Securities except the right to receive the redemption price thereof and unpaid interest to the date fixed for redemption. On presentation and surrender of such Securities at a place of payment specified in said notice, together with all coupons, if any, appertaining thereto maturing after the date fixed for redemption, said Securities or the specified portions thereof shall be paid and redeemed by the Company at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption; provided that payment of interest becoming due on or prior to the date fixed for redemption shall be payable in the case of Securities with coupons attached thereto, to the Holders of the coupons for such interest upon surrender thereof, and in the case of Registered Securities, to the Holders of such Registered Securities registered as such on the relevant record date subject to the terms and provisions of Sections 2.04 and 2.13 hereof.

If any Security called for redemption shall not be so paid upon surrender thereof for redemption, the principal shall, until paid or duly provided for, bear interest from the date fixed for redemption at the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of an Original Issue Discount Security) borne by such Security.

If any Security with coupons attached thereto is surrendered for redemption and is not accompanied by all appurtenant coupons maturing after the date fixed for redemption, the surrender of such missing coupon or coupons may be waived by the Company and the Trustee, if there be furnished to each of them such security or indemnity as they may require to save each of them harmless.

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Upon presentation of any Security of any series redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver to or on the order of the Holder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security or Securities of such series and tenor (with any unmatured coupons attached), of authorized denominations, in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

Section 3.04. Exclusion of Certain Securities From Eligibility for Selection for Redemption. Securities shall be excluded from eligibility for selection for redemption if they are identified by registration and certificate number in a written statement signed by an authorized officer of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at least 40 days prior to the last date on which notice of redemption may be given as being owned of record and beneficially by, and not pledged or hypothecated by, either (a) the Company or (b) an entity specifically identified in such written statement as directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Company.

Section 3.05. Mandatory and Optional Sinking Funds. The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment”, and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of the Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”. The date on which a sinking fund payment is to be made is herein referred to as the “sinking fund payment date”.

In lieu of making all or any part of any mandatory sinking fund payment with respect to any series of Securities in cash, the Company may at its option (a) deliver to the Trustee Securities of such series theretofore purchased or otherwise acquired (except through a mandatory sinking fund payment) by the Company or receive credit for Securities of such series (not previously so credited) theretofore purchased or otherwise acquired (except as aforesaid) by the Company and delivered to the Trustee for cancellation pursuant to Section 2.11, (b) receive credit for optional sinking fund payments (not previously so credited) made pursuant to this Section, or (c) receive credit for Securities of such series (not previously so credited) redeemed by the Company at the option of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through any optional sinking fund payment. Securities so delivered or credited shall be received or credited by the Trustee at the sinking fund redemption price specified in such Securities.

On or before the sixtieth day next preceding each sinking fund payment date for any series, or such shorter period as shall be acceptable to the Trustee, the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate (a) specifying the portion of the mandatory sinking fund payment to be satisfied by payment of cash and the portion to be satisfied by credit of specified Securities of such series and the basis for such credit, (b) stating that none of the specified Securities of such series has theretofore been so credited, (c) stating that no defaults in the payment of interest or Events of Default with respect to such series have occurred (which have not been waived or cured) and are continuing and (d) stating whether or not the Company intends to exercise its right to make an optional sinking fund payment with respect to such series and, if so, specifying the amount of such optional sinking fund payment which the Company intends to pay on or before the next succeeding sinking fund payment date. Any Securities of such series to be credited and required to be delivered to the Trustee in order for the Company to be entitled to credit therefor as aforesaid which have not theretofore been delivered to the Trustee shall be delivered for cancellation pursuant to Section 2.11 to the Trustee with such Officer’s Certificate (or reasonably promptly thereafter if acceptable to the Trustee). Such Officer’s Certificate shall be irrevocable and upon its receipt by the Trustee the Company shall become unconditionally obligated to make all the cash payments or delivery of Securities therein referred to, if any, on or before the next succeeding sinking fund payment date. Failure of the Company, on or before any such sixtieth day, to deliver such Officer’s Certificate and Securities specified in this paragraph, if any, shall not constitute a default but shall constitute, on and as of such date, the irrevocable election of the Company (i) that the mandatory sinking fund payment for such series due on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date shall be paid entirely in cash without the option to deliver or credit Securities of such series in respect thereof and (ii) that the Company will make no optional sinking fund payment with respect to such series as provided in this Section.


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If the sinking fund payment or payments (mandatory or optional or both) to be made in cash on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date plus any unused balance of any preceding sinking fund payments made in cash shall exceed $50,000 (or a lesser sum if the Company shall so request with respect to the Securities of any series), such cash shall be applied on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date to the redemption of Securities of such series at the sinking fund redemption price thereof together with accrued interest thereon to the date fixed for redemption. If such amount shall be $50,000 (or such lesser sum) or less and the Company makes no such request then it shall be carried over until a sum in excess of $50,000 (or such lesser sum) is available. The Trustee shall select, in the manner provided in Section 3.02, for redemption on such sinking fund payment date a sufficient principal amount of Securities of such series to absorb said cash, as nearly as may be, and shall (if requested in writing by the Company) inform the Company of the serial numbers of the Securities of such series (or portions thereof) so selected. Securities shall be excluded from eligibility for redemption under this Section if they are identified by registration and certificate number in an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee at least 60 days prior to the sinking fund payment date as being owned of record and beneficially by, and not pledged or hypothecated by either (a) the Company or (b) an entity specifically identified in such Officer’s Certificate as directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Company. The Trustee, in the name and at the expense of the Company (or the Company, if it shall so request the Trustee in writing) shall cause notice of redemption of the Securities of such series to be given in substantially the manner provided in Section 3.02 (and with the effect provided in Section 3.03) for the redemption of Securities of such series in part at the option of the Company. The amount of any sinking fund payments not so applied or allocated to the redemption of Securities of such series shall be added to the next cash sinking fund payment for such series and, together with such payment, shall be applied in accordance with the provisions of this Section. Any and all sinking fund moneys held on the stated maturity date of the Securities of any particular series (or earlier, if such maturity is accelerated), which are not held for the payment or redemption of particular Securities of such series shall be applied, together with other moneys, if necessary, sufficient for the purpose, to the payment of the Principal of, and interest on, the Securities of such series at maturity.

On or before 10:00 a.m. New York City time on each sinking fund payment date or, in the case of Unregistered Securities, 10:00 a.m. New York City time on the Business Day prior to the sinking fund payment date, the Company shall pay to the Trustee in cash or shall otherwise provide for the payment of all interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption on Securities to be redeemed on the next following sinking fund payment date.

The Trustee shall not redeem or cause to be redeemed any Securities of a series with sinking fund moneys or mail any notice of redemption of Securities of such series by operation of the sinking fund during the continuance of a Default in payment of interest on such Securities or of any Event of Default except that, where the mailing of notice of redemption of any Securities shall theretofore have been made, the Trustee shall redeem or cause to be redeemed such Securities, provided that it shall have received from the Company a sum sufficient for such redemption. Except as aforesaid, any moneys in the sinking fund for such series at the time when any such Default or Event of Default shall occur, and any moneys thereafter paid into the sinking fund, shall, during the continuance of such Default or Event of Default, be deemed to have been collected under Article 6 and held for the payment of all such Securities. In case such Event of Default shall have been waived as provided in Section 6.04 or the Default cured on or before the sixtieth day preceding the sinking fund payment date in any year, such moneys shall thereafter be applied on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date in accordance with this Section to the redemption of such Securities.



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ARTICLE 4

COVENANTS

Section 4.01. Payment of Securities. The Company shall pay the Principal of and interest on the Securities on the dates and in the manner provided in the Securities and this Indenture. The interest on Securities with coupons attached (together with any additional amounts payable pursuant to the terms of such Securities) shall be payable only upon presentation and surrender of the several coupons for such interest installments as are evidenced thereby as they severally mature. The interest on any temporary Unregistered Securities (together with any additional amounts payable pursuant to the terms of such Securities) shall be paid, as to the installments of interest evidenced by coupons attached thereto, if any, only upon presentation and surrender thereof, and, as to the other installments of interest, if any, only upon presentation of such Unregistered Securities for notation thereon of the payment of such interest. The interest on Registered Securities (together with any additional amounts payable pursuant to the terms of such Securities) shall be payable only to the Holders thereof (subject to Section 2.04) and at the option of the Company may be paid by mailing checks for such interest payable to or upon the written order of such Holders at their last addresses as they appear on the Security Register of the Company.

Notwithstanding any provisions of this Indenture and the Securities of any series to the contrary, if the Company and a Holder of any Registered Security so agree, payments of interest on, and any portion of the Principal of, such Holder’s Registered Security (other than interest payable at maturity or on any redemption or repayment date or the final payment of Principal on such Security) shall be made by the Paying Agent, upon receipt from the Company of immediately available funds by 11:00 a.m., New York City time (or such other time as may be agreed to between the Company and the Paying Agent), directly to the Holder of such Security (by wire transfer through the Fedwire Funds Service or otherwise) if the Holder has delivered written instructions to the Trustee 15 days prior to such payment date requesting that such payment will be so made and designating the bank account to which such payments shall be so made and in the case of payments of Principal, surrenders the same to the Trustee in exchange for a Security or Securities aggregating the same principal amount as the unredeemed principal amount of the Securities surrendered. The Trustee shall be entitled to rely on the last instruction delivered by the Holder pursuant to this Section 4.01 unless a new instruction is delivered 15 days prior to a payment date. The Company will indemnify and hold each of the Trustee and any Paying Agent harmless against any loss, liability or expense (including attorneys’ fees) resulting from any act or omission to act on the part of the Company or any such Holder in connection with any such agreement or from making any payment in accordance with any such agreement.

The Company shall pay interest on overdue Principal, and interest on overdue installments of interest, to the extent lawful, at the rate per annum specified in the Securities.

Section 4.02. Maintenance of Office or Agency. The Company will maintain in the United States of America an office or agency where Securities may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange or for presentation for payment and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities and this Indenture may be served. The Company hereby initially designates the [●], located in [●], as such office or agency of the Company. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the location, and any change in the location, of such office or agency. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the address of the Trustee set forth in Section 10.02.


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The Company will maintain one or more agencies in a city or cities located outside the United States of America (including any city in which such an agency is required to be maintained under the rules of any stock exchange on which the Securities of any series are listed) where the Unregistered Securities, if any, of each series and coupons, if any, appertaining thereto may be presented for payment. No payment on any Unregistered Security or coupon will be made upon presentation of such Unregistered Security or coupon at an agency of the Company within the United States of America nor will any payment be made by transfer to an account in, or by mail to an address in, the United States of America unless, pursuant to applicable United States laws and regulations then in effect, such payment can be made without adverse tax consequences to the Company. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if full payment in United States Dollars (“Dollars”) at each agency maintained by the Company outside the United States of America for payment on such Unregistered Securities or coupons appertaining thereto is illegal or effectively precluded by exchange controls or other similar restrictions, payments in Dollars of Unregistered Securities of any series and coupons appertaining thereto which are payable in Dollars may be made at an agency of the Company maintained in the United States of America.

The Company may also from time to time designate one or more other offices or agencies where the Securities of any series may be presented or surrendered for any or all such purposes and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligation to maintain an office or agency in the United States of America for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the location of any such other office or agency.

Section 4.03. Securityholders’ Lists. The Company will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee a list in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require of the names and addresses of the holders of the Securities pursuant to Section 312 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (a) semi-annually not more than 15 days after each record date for the payment of semi-annual interest on the Securities, as hereinabove specified, as of such record date, and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, within thirty days after receipt by the Company of any such request as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such information is furnished.

Section 4.04. Certificate to Trustee. The Company will furnish to the Trustee annually, on or before a date not more than four months after the end of its fiscal year (which, on the date hereof, is a calendar year), a brief certificate (which need not contain the statements required by Section 10.04) from its principal executive, financial or accounting officer as to his or her knowledge of the compliance of the Company with all conditions and covenants under this Indenture (such compliance to be determined without regard to any period of grace or requirement of notice provided under this Indenture) which certificate shall comply with the requirements of the Trust Indenture Act. Such certificate need not include a reference to any non-compliance that has been fully cured prior to the date as of which such certificate speaks.

Section 4.05. Reports by the Company. So long as any Securities are outstanding, the Company shall file with the Trustee, within 15 days after the Company files the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents, and other reports which the Company may be required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Company shall be deemed to have complied with the previous sentence to the extent that such information, documents and reports are filed with the Commission via its “EDGAR” system (or any successor electronic delivery procedure) or posted on its website.

Delivery of such reports, information and documents to the Trustee is for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officer’s Certificates).


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Section 4.06. Additional Amounts. If the Securities of a series provide for the payment of additional amounts, at least 10 days prior to the first interest payment date with respect to that series of Securities and at least 10 days prior to each date of payment of Principal of or interest on the Securities of that series if there has been a change with respect to the matters set forth in the below-mentioned Officer’s Certificate, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee and the principal paying agent, if other than the Trustee, an Officer’s Certificate instructing the Trustee and such paying agent whether such payment of Principal of or interest on the Securities of that series shall be made to Holders of the Securities of that series without withholding or deduction for or on account of any tax, assessment or other governmental charge described in the Securities of that series. If any such withholding or deduction shall be required, then such Officer’s Certificate shall specify by country the amount, if any, required to be withheld or deducted on such payments to such Holders and shall certify the fact that additional amounts will be payable and the amounts so payable to each Holder, and the Company shall pay to the Trustee or such paying agent the additional amounts required to be paid by this Section. The Company covenants to indemnify the Trustee and any paying agent for, and to hold them harmless against, any loss, liability or expense reasonably incurred without negligence or bad faith on their part arising out of or in connection with actions taken or omitted by any of them in reliance on any Officer’s Certificate furnished pursuant to this Section.

Whenever in this Indenture there is mentioned, in any context, the payment of the Principal of or interest or any other amounts on, or in respect of, any Security of any series, such mention shall be deemed to include mention of the payment of additional amounts provided by the terms of such series established hereby or pursuant hereto to the extent that, in such context, additional amounts are, were or would be payable in respect thereof pursuant to such terms, and express mention of the payment of additional amounts (if applicable) in any provision hereof shall not be construed as excluding the payment of additional amounts in those provisions hereof where such express mention is not made.

ARTICLE 5

SUCCESSOR CORPORATION

Section 5.01. When Company May Merge, Etc. The Company shall not consolidate with, merge with or into, or sell, convey, transfer, lease or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its property and assets (in one transaction or a series of related transactions) to, any Person unless either (x) the Company shall be the continuing Person or (y) the Person (if other than the Company) formed by such consolidation or into which the Company is merged or to which properties and assets of the Company shall be sold, conveyed, transferred or leased shall be a Person organized and validly existing under the laws of the United States of America or any jurisdiction thereof and shall expressly assume, by a supplemental indenture, executed and delivered to the Trustee, all of the obligations of the Company on all of the Securities and under this Indenture and the Company in the case of clauses (x) and (y) shall have delivered to the Trustee (A) an Opinion of Counsel stating that such consolidation, merger or sale, conveyance, transfer or lease and such supplemental indenture (if any) complies with this provision and that all conditions precedent provided for herein relating to such transaction have been complied with and that such supplemental indenture (if any) constitutes the legal, valid and binding obligation of the Company and such successor enforceable against such entity in accordance with its terms, subject to customary exceptions and (B) an Officer’s Certificate to the effect that immediately after giving effect to such transaction, no Default shall have occurred and be continuing.

Section 5.02. Successor Substituted. Upon any consolidation or merger, or any sale, conveyance, transfer, lease or other disposition of all or substantially all of the property and assets of the Company in accordance with Section 5.01 of this Indenture, the successor Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Company is merged or to which such sale, conveyance, transfer, lease or other disposition is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor Person had been named as the Company herein and thereafter the predecessor Person, except in the case of a lease, shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.


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ARTICLE 6

DEFAULT AND REMEDIES
Section 6.01. Events of Default. An “Event of Default” shall occur with respect to the Securities of any series if:

(a)the Company defaults in the payment of the Principal of any Security of such series when the same becomes due and payable at maturity, upon acceleration, redemption or mandatory repurchase, including as a sinking fund installment, or otherwise;
(b)the Company defaults in the payment of interest on any Security of such series when the same becomes due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 30 days;
(c)the Company defaults in the performance of or breaches any other covenant or agreement of the Company in this Indenture with respect to any Security of such series or in the Securities of such series and such default or breach continues for a period of 30 consecutive days after written notice to the Company by the Trustee or to the Company and the Trustee by the Holders of 25% or more in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of all series affected thereby specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder;
(d)a court having jurisdiction in the premises shall enter a decree or order for relief in respect of the Company in an involuntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or appointing a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee, sequestrator (or similar official) of the Company or for any substantial part of its property or ordering the winding up or liquidation of its affairs, and such decree or order shall remain unstayed and in effect for a period of 60 consecutive days;
(e)the Company (i) commences a voluntary case under any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law now or hereafter in effect, or consents to the entry of an order for relief in an involuntary case under any such law, (ii) consents to the appointment of or taking possession by a receiver, liquidator, assignee, custodian, trustee, sequestrator or similar official of the Company or for all or substantially all of the property and assets of the Company or (iii) effects any general assignment for the benefit of creditors; or
(f)any other Event of Default established pursuant to Section 2.03 with respect to the Securities of such series occurs.

Section 6.02. Acceleration. (a) If an Event of Default other than as described in clauses (d) or (e) of Section 6.01 with respect to the Securities of any series then outstanding occurs and is continuing, then, and in each and every such case, except for any series of Securities the principal of which shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any such series then outstanding hereunder (all such series voting together as a single class) by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by Securityholders), may declare the entire principal (or, if the Securities of any such series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series established pursuant to Section 2.03) of all Securities of such series, and the interest accrued thereon, if any, to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become immediately due and payable.

(a)If an Event of Default described in clause (d) or (e) of Section 6.01 occurs and is continuing, then the principal amount (or, if any Securities are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal as may be specified in the terms thereof established pursuant to Section 2.03) of all the Securities then outstanding and interest accrued thereon, if any, shall be and become immediately due and payable, without any notice or other action by any Holder or the Trustee, to the full extent permitted by applicable law.


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The foregoing provisions, however, are subject to the condition that if, at any time after the principal (or, if the Securities are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal as may be specified in the terms thereof established pursuant to Section 2.03) of the Securities of any series (or of all the Securities, as the case may be) shall have been so declared or become due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the Company shall pay or shall deposit with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of each such series (or of all the Securities, as the case may be) and the principal of any and all Securities of each such series (or of all the Securities, as the case may be) which shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and, to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law, on overdue installments of interest, at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of each such series to the date of such payment or deposit) and such amount as shall be sufficient to cover all amounts owing the Trustee under Section 7.07, and if any and all Events of Default under the Indenture, other than the non-payment of the principal of Securities which shall have become due by acceleration, shall have been cured, waived or otherwise remedied as provided herein, then and in every such case the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the then outstanding Securities of all such series that have been accelerated (voting as a single class), by written notice to the Company and to the Trustee, may waive all defaults with respect to all such series (or with respect to all the Securities, as the case may be) and rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences, but no such waiver or rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or shall impair any right consequent thereon.

For all purposes under this Indenture, if a portion of the principal of any Original Issue Discount Securities shall have been accelerated and declared or become due and payable pursuant to the provisions hereof, then, from and after such declaration, unless such declaration has been rescinded and annulled, the principal amount of such Original Issue Discount Securities shall be deemed, for all purposes hereunder, to be such portion of the principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, and payment of such portion of the principal thereof as shall be due and payable as a result of such acceleration, together with interest, if any, thereon and all other amounts owing thereunder, shall constitute payment in full of such Original Issue Discount Securities.

Section 6.03. Other Remedies. If a payment default or an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of any series occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may pursue, in its own name or as trustee of an express trust, any available remedy by proceeding at law or in equity to collect the payment of Principal of and interest on the Securities of such series or to enforce the performance of any provision of the Securities of such series or this Indenture.

The Trustee may maintain a proceeding even if it does not possess any of the Securities or does not produce any of them in the proceeding.

Section 6.04. Waiver of Past Defaults. Subject to Sections 6.02, 6.07 and 9.02, the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount (or, if the Securities are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal as is then accelerable under Section 6.02) of the outstanding Securities of all series affected (voting as a single class), by notice to the Trustee, may waive an existing Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such series and its consequences, except a Default in the payment of Principal of or interest on any Security as specified in clauses (a) or (b) of Section 6.01 or in respect of a covenant or provision of this Indenture which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the Holder of each outstanding Security affected. Upon any such waiver, such Default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such series arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default or Event of Default or impair any right consequent thereto.


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Section 6.05. Control by Majority. Subject to Sections 7.01 and 7.02(e), the Holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount (or, if any Securities are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal as is then accelerable under Section 6.02) of the outstanding Securities of all series affected (voting as a single class) may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series by this Indenture; provided, that the Trustee may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or this Indenture, that may involve the Trustee in personal liability or that the Trustee determines in good faith may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of Holders not joining in the giving of such direction; and provided further, that the Trustee may take any other action it deems proper that is not inconsistent with any directions received from Holders of Securities pursuant to this Section 6.05.

Section 6.06. Limitation on Suits. No Holder of any Security of any series may institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to this Indenture or the Securities of such series, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless:

(a)such Holder has previously given to the Trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such series;
(b)the Holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of outstanding Securities of all such series affected shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as Trustee hereunder;
(c)such Holder or Holders have offered to the Trustee indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee against any costs, liabilities or expenses to be incurred in compliance with such request;
(d)the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and
(e)during such 60-day period, the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of all such affected series have not given the Trustee a direction that is inconsistent with such written request.

A Holder may not use this Indenture to prejudice the rights of another Holder or to obtain a preference or priority over such other Holder.

Section 6.07. Rights of Holders to Receive Payment. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture, the right of any Holder of a Security to receive payment of Principal of or interest, if any, on such Holder’s Security on or after the respective due dates expressed on such Security, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such Holder.

Section 6.08. Collection Suit by Trustee. If an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of any series in payment of Principal or interest specified in clause (a) or (b) of Section 6.01 occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may recover judgment in its own name and as trustee of an express trust against the Company for the whole amount (or such portion thereof as specified in the terms established pursuant to Section 2.03 of Original Issue Discount Securities) of Principal of, and accrued interest remaining unpaid on, together with interest on overdue Principal of, and, to the extent that payment of such interest is lawful, interest on overdue installments of interest on, the Securities of such series, in each case at the rate or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in such Securities, and such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover all amounts owing the Trustee under Section 7.07.


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Section 6.09. Trustee May File Proofs of Claim. The Trustee may file such proofs of claim and other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.07) and the Holders allowed in any judicial proceedings relative to the Company (or any other obligor on the Securities), its creditors or its property and shall be entitled and empowered to collect and receive any moneys, securities or other property payable or deliverable upon conversion or exchange of the Securities or upon any such claims and to distribute the same, and any custodian, receiver, assignee, trustee, liquidator, sequestrator or other similar official in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Holder to make such payments to the Trustee and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Holders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due to it under Section 7.07. Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to empower the Trustee to authorize or consent to, or accept or adopt on behalf of any Holder, any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities or the rights of any Holder thereof, or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Holder in any such proceeding.

Section 6.10. Application of Proceeds. Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article in respect of the Securities of any series shall be applied in the following order at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of Principal or interest, upon presentation of the several Securities and coupons appertaining to such Securities in respect of which moneys have been collected and noting thereon the payment, or issuing Securities of such series and tenor in reduced principal amounts in exchange for the presented Securities of such series and tenor if only partially paid, or upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

FIRST: To the payment of all amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.07 applicable to the Securities of such series in respect of which moneys have been collected;

SECOND: In case the principal of the Securities of such series in respect of which moneys have been collected shall not have become and be then due and payable, to the payment of interest on the Securities of such series in default in the order of the maturity of the installments of such interest, with interest (to the extent that such interest has been collected by the Trustee) upon the overdue installments of interest at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in such Securities, such payments to be made ratably to the persons entitled thereto, without discrimination or preference;

THIRD: In case the principal of the Securities of such series in respect of which moneys have been collected shall have become and shall be then due and payable, to the payment of the whole amount then owing and unpaid upon all the Securities of such series for Principal and interest, with interest upon the overdue Principal, and (to the extent that such interest has been collected by the Trustee) upon overdue installments of interest at the same rate as the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) specified in the Securities of such series; and in case such moneys shall be insufficient to pay in full the whole amount so due and unpaid upon the Securities of such series, then to the payment of such Principal and interest or Yield to Maturity, without preference or priority of Principal over interest or Yield to Maturity, or of interest or Yield to Maturity over Principal, or of any installment of interest over any other installment of interest, or of any Security of such series over any other Security of such series, ratably to the aggregate of such Principal and accrued and unpaid interest or Yield to Maturity; and

FOURTH: To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Company or any other person lawfully entitled thereto.

Section 6.11. Restoration of Rights and Remedies. If the Trustee or any Holder has instituted any proceeding to enforce any right or remedy under this Indenture and such proceeding has been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or has been determined adversely to the Trustee or to such Holder, then, and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceeding, the Company, the Trustee and the Holders shall be restored to their former positions hereunder and thereafter all rights and remedies of the Company, Trustee and the Holders shall continue as though no such proceeding had been instituted.


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Section 6.12. Undertaking for Costs. In any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, in either case in respect to the Securities of any series, a court may require any party litigant in such suit (other than the Trustee) to file an undertaking to pay the costs of the suit, and the court may assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant (other than the Trustee) in the suit having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by the party litigant. This Section 6.12 does not apply to a suit by a Holder pursuant to Section 6.07, a suit instituted by the Trustee or a suit by Holders of more than 10% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such series.

Section 6.13. Rights and Remedies Cumulative. Except as otherwise provided with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or wrongfully taken Securities in Section 2.08, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

Section 6.14. Delay or Omission not Waiver. No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder to exercise any right or remedy accruing upon any Event of Default shall impair any such right or remedy or constitute a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein. Every right and remedy given by this Article 6 or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as may be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders, as the case may be.

ARTICLE 7

TRUSTEE

Section 7.01. General. The duties and responsibilities of the Trustee shall be as provided by the Trust Indenture Act and as set forth herein. Notwithstanding the foregoing, no provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur any financial liability in the performance of any of its duties hereunder, or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, unless it receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense. Whether or not therein expressly so provided, every provision of this Indenture relating to the conduct or affecting the liability of or affording protection to the Trustee shall be subject to the provisions of this Article 7.

Section 7.02. Certain Rights of Trustee. Subject to Trust Indenture Act Sections 315(a) through (d):

(a)the Trustee may rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, Officer’s Certificate, Opinion of Counsel (or both), statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, other evidence of indebtedness or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper person or persons. The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document, but the Trustee, in its discretion, may make such further inquiry or investigation into such facts or matters as it may see fit;
(b)before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it may require an Officer’s Certificate and/or an Opinion of Counsel, which shall conform to Section 10.04 and shall cover such other matters as the Trustee may reasonably request. The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such certificate or opinion. Subject to Sections 7.01 and 7.02, whenever in the administration of the trusts of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee, and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof;
(c)the Trustee may act through its attorneys and agents not regularly in its employ and shall not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of any agent or attorney appointed with due care;

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(d)any request, direction, order or demand of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by an Officer’s Certificate (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed); and any Board Resolution may be evidenced to the Trustee by a copy thereof certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company;
(e)the Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Holders, unless such Holders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction;
(f)the Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith that it believes to be authorized or within its rights or powers or for any action it takes or omits to take in accordance with the direction of the Holders in accordance with Section 6.05 relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture;
(g)the Trustee may consult with counsel and the written advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon; and
(h)prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default hereunder and after the curing or waiving of all Events of Default, the Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, Officer’s Certificate, Opinion of Counsel, Board Resolution, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, appraisal, bond, debenture, note, coupon, security, or other paper or document unless requested in writing so to do by the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of all series affected then outstanding; provided that, if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require reasonable indemnity against such expenses or liabilities as a condition to proceeding.

Section 7.03. Individual Rights of Trustee. The Trustee, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and may otherwise deal with the Company or its Affiliates with the same rights it would have if it were not the Trustee. Any Agent may do the same with like rights. However, the Trustee is subject to Trust Indenture Act Sections 310(b) and 311. For purposes of Trust Indenture Act Section 311(b)(4) and (6), the following terms shall mean:

(a)cash transaction” means any transaction in which full payment for goods or securities sold is made within seven days after delivery of the goods or securities in currency or in checks or other orders drawn upon banks or bankers and payable upon demand; and
(b)self-liquidating paper” means any draft, bill of exchange, acceptance or obligation which is made, drawn, negotiated or incurred by the Company for the purpose of financing the purchase, processing, manufacturing, shipment, storage or sale of goods, wares or merchandise and which is secured by documents evidencing title to, possession of, or a lien upon, the goods, wares or merchandise or the receivables or proceeds arising from the sale of the goods, wares or merchandise previously constituting the security, provided the security is received by the Trustee simultaneously with the creation of the creditor relationship with the Company arising from the making, drawing, negotiating or incurring of the draft, bill of exchange, acceptance or obligation.

Section 7.04. Trustee’s Disclaimer. The recitals contained herein and in the Securities (except the Trustee’s certificate of authentication) shall be taken as statements of the Company and not of the Trustee and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same. Neither the Trustee nor any of its agents (a) makes any representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities and (b) shall be accountable for the Company’s use or application of the proceeds from the Securities.


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Section 7.05. Notice of Default. If any Default with respect to the Securities of any series occurs and is continuing and if such Default is known to the actual knowledge of a Responsible Officer with the Corporate Trust Department of the Trustee, the Trustee shall give to each Holder of Securities of such series notice of such Default within 90 days after it occurs (a) if any Unregistered Securities of such series are then outstanding, to the Holders thereof, by publication at least once in an Authorized Newspaper in the Borough of Manhattan, The City of New York and at least once in an Authorized Newspaper in London and (b) to all Holders of Securities of such series in the manner and to the extent provided in Section 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act, unless such Default shall have been cured or waived before the mailing or publication of such notice; provided, however, that, except in the case of a Default in the payment of the Principal of or interest on any Security, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if the Trustee in good faith determines that the withholding of such notice is in the interests of the Holders.

Section 7.06. Reports by Trustee to Holders. The Trustee shall transmit to Holders such reports concerning the Trustee and its actions under this Indenture as may be required pursuant to the Trust Indenture Act at the times and in the manner provided pursuant thereto. If required by Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee shall, within 60 days after each May 15 following the date of this Indenture, deliver to Holders a brief report, dated as of such May 15, which complies with the provisions of such Section 313(a).

A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Holders, be filed by the Trustee with each stock exchange upon which any Securities are listed, with the Commission and with the Company. The Company will promptly notify the Trustee when any Securities are listed on any stock exchange.

Section 7.07. Compensation and Indemnity. The Company shall pay to the Trustee such compensation as shall be agreed upon in writing from time to time for its services. The compensation of the Trustee shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a Trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee and any predecessor Trustee upon request for all reasonable out-of-pocket expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by the Trustee or such predecessor Trustee. Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s or such predecessor Trustee’s agents, counsel and other persons not regularly in their employ.

The Company shall indemnify the Trustee and any predecessor Trustee for, and hold them harmless against, any loss or liability or expense incurred by them without negligence or bad faith on their part arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of this Indenture and the Securities or the issuance of the Securities or of series thereof or the trusts hereunder and the performance of duties under this Indenture and the Securities, including the costs and expenses of defending themselves against or investigating any claim or liability and of complying with any process served upon them or any of their officers in connection with the exercise or performance of any of their powers or duties under this Indenture and the Securities.

To secure the Company’s payment obligations in this Section 7.07, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities on all money or property held or collected by the Trustee, in its capacity as Trustee, except money or property held in trust to pay Principal of, and interest on particular Securities.

The obligations of the Company under this Section to compensate and indemnify the Trustee and each predecessor Trustee and to pay or reimburse the Trustee and each predecessor Trustee for expenses, disbursements and advances shall constitute additional indebtedness hereunder and shall survive the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or the rejection or termination of this Indenture under bankruptcy law. Such additional indebtedness shall be a senior claim to that of the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the benefit of the Holders of particular Securities or coupons, and the Securities are hereby subordinated to such senior claim. Without prejudice to any other rights available to the Trustee under applicable law, if the Trustee renders services and incurs expenses following an Event of Default under Section 6.01(d) or Section 6.01(e) hereof, the parties hereto and the holders by their acceptance of the Securities hereby agree that such expenses are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any bankruptcy law.

Section 7.08. Replacement of Trustee. A resignation or removal of the Trustee as Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series and appointment of a successor Trustee as Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series shall become effective only upon the successor Trustee’s acceptance of appointment as provided in this Section 7.08.

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The Trustee may resign as Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series at any time by so notifying the Company in writing. The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any series may remove the Trustee as Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series by so notifying the Trustee in writing and may appoint a successor Trustee with respect thereto with the consent of the Company. The Company may remove the Trustee as Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series if: (i) the Trustee is no longer eligible under Section 7.11 of this Indenture; (ii) the Trustee is adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent; (iii) a receiver or other public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or (iv) the Trustee becomes incapable of acting.

If the Trustee resigns or is removed as Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series, or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series for any reason, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor Trustee with respect thereto. Within one year after the successor Trustee takes office, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such series may appoint a successor Trustee in respect of such Securities to replace the successor Trustee appointed by the Company. If the successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series does not deliver its written acceptance required by Section 7.09 within 30 days after the retiring Trustee resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Company or the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee with respect thereto.

The Company shall give notice of any resignation and any removal of the Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series and each appointment of a successor Trustee in respect of the Securities of such series to all Holders of Securities of such series. Each notice shall include the name of the successor Trustee and the address of its Corporate Trust Office.

Notwithstanding replacement of the Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series pursuant to this Section 7.08 and Section 7.09, the Company’s obligations under Section 7.07 shall continue for the benefit of the retiring Trustee.

Section 7.09. Acceptance of Appointment by Successor. In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor Trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor Trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor Trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee; but, on the request of the Company or the successor Trustee, such retiring Trustee shall, upon payment of its charges and subject to the lien provided for in Section 7.07, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor Trustee all the rights, powers and trusts of the retiring Trustee and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor Trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder.


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In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor Trustee shall accept such appointment and which (1) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm to, and to vest in, each successor Trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates, (2) if the retiring Trustee is not retiring with respect to all Securities, shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and (3) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust and that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee; and upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein and each such successor Trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates; but, on request of the Company or any successor Trustee, such retiring Trustee shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor Trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates.

Upon request of any such successor Trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor Trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in the first or second preceding paragraph, as the case may be.

No successor Trustee shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor Trustee shall be eligible under this Article and qualified under Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Section 7.10. Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc. If the Trustee consolidates with, merges or converts into, or transfers all or substantially all of its corporate trust business to, another corporation or national banking association, the resulting, surviving or transferee corporation or national banking association without any further act shall be the successor Trustee with the same effect as if the successor Trustee had been named as the Trustee herein.

Section 7.11. Eligibility. This Indenture shall always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of Trust Indenture Act Section 310(a). The Trustee shall have a combined capital and surplus of at least $25,000,000 as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition.

Section 7.12. Money Held in Trust. The Trustee shall not be liable for interest on any money received by it except as the Trustee may agree in writing with the Company. Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law and except for money held in trust under Article 8 of this Indenture.


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ARTICLE 8

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; UNCLAIMED MONEYS

Section 8.01. Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture. If at any time (a) the Company shall have paid or caused to be paid the Principal of and interest on all the Securities of any series outstanding hereunder (other than Securities of such series which have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.08) as and when the same shall have become due and payable, or (b) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee for cancellation all Securities of any series theretofore authenticated (other than any Securities of such series which shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.08) or (c) (i) all the securities of such series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation shall have become due and payable, or are by their terms to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption, and (ii) the Company shall have irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds the entire amount in cash (other than moneys repaid by the Trustee or any paying agent to the Company in accordance with Section 8.04) or U.S. Government Obligations, maturing as to principal and interest in such amounts and at such times as will insure (without consideration of the reinvestment of such interest) the availability of cash, or a combination thereof, sufficient to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of such series (other than any Securities of such series which shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.08) not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal and interest due or to become due on or prior to such date of maturity or redemption as the case may be, and if, in any such case, the Company shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company with respect to Securities of such series, then this Indenture shall cease to be of further effect with respect to Securities of such series (except as to (i) rights of registration of transfer and exchange of securities of such series, and the Company’s right of optional redemption, if any, (ii) substitution of mutilated, defaced, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, (iii) rights of holders to receive payments of principal thereof and interest thereon, upon the original stated due dates therefor (but not upon acceleration) and remaining rights of the holders to receive mandatory sinking fund payments, if any, (iv) the rights, obligations and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and (v) the rights of the Securityholders of such series as beneficiaries hereof with respect to the property so deposited with the Trustee payable to all or any of them), and the Trustee, on demand of the Company accompanied by an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel and at the cost and expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging such satisfaction of and discharging this Indenture with respect to such series; provided, that the rights of Holders of the Securities to receive amounts in respect of Principal of and interest on the Securities held by them shall not be delayed longer than required by then-applicable mandatory rules or policies of any securities exchange upon which the Securities are listed. The Company agrees to reimburse the Trustee for any costs or expenses thereafter reasonably and properly incurred and to compensate the Trustee for any services thereafter reasonably and properly rendered by the Trustee in connection with this Indenture or the Securities of such series.

Section 8.02. Application by Trustee of Funds Deposited for Payment of Securities. Subject to Section 8.04, all moneys (including U.S. Government Obligations and the proceeds thereof) deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.01, Section 8.05 or Section 8.06 shall be held in trust and applied by it to the payment, either directly or through any paying agent to the Holders of the particular Securities of such series for the payment or redemption of which such moneys have been deposited with the Trustee, of all sums due and to become due thereon for Principal and interest; but such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

Section 8.03. Repayment of Moneys Held by Paying Agent. In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture with respect to Securities of any series, all moneys then held by any paying agent under the provisions of this Indenture with respect to such series of Securities shall, upon demand of the Company, be repaid to it or paid to the Trustee and thereupon such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys.


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Section 8.04. Return of Moneys Held by Trustee and Paying Agent Unclaimed for Two Years. Any moneys deposited with or paid to the Trustee or any paying agent for the payment of the Principal of or interest on any Security of any series and not applied but remaining unclaimed for two years after the date upon which such Principal or interest shall have become due and payable, shall, upon the written request of the Company and unless otherwise required by mandatory provisions of applicable escheat or abandoned or unclaimed property law, be repaid to the Company by the Trustee for such series or such paying agent, and the Holder of the Security of such series shall, unless otherwise required by mandatory provisions of applicable escheat or abandoned or unclaimed property laws, thereafter look only to the Company for any payment which such Holder may be entitled to collect, and all liability of the Trustee or any paying agent with respect to such moneys shall thereupon cease.

Section 8.05. Defeasance and Discharge of Indenture. The Company shall be deemed to have paid and shall be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the Securities of any series, on the 123rd day after the deposit referred to in clause (i) hereof has been made, and the provisions of this Indenture shall no longer be in effect with respect to the Securities of such series (and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging the same), except as to: (a) rights of registration of transfer and exchange, and the Company’s right of optional redemption, (b) substitution of apparently mutilated, defaced, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, (c) rights of holders to receive payments of principal thereof and interest thereon, upon the original stated due dates therefor (but not upon acceleration), (d) the rights, obligations and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and (e) the rights of the Securityholders of such series as beneficiaries hereof with respect to the property so deposited with the Trustee payable to all or any of them; provided that the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

(i)with reference to this provision the Company has deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited with the Trustee (or another qualifying trustee satisfying the requirements of Section 7.11) as trust funds in trust, specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series, (A) money in an amount, or (B) U.S. Government Obligations which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms will provide not later than one day before the due date of any payment referred to in subclause (x) or (y) of this clause (i) money in an amount, or (C) a combination thereof, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized investment banking firm, appraisal firm or firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge without consideration of the reinvestment of such interest and after payment of all federal, state and local taxes or other charges and assessments in respect thereof payable by the Trustee (x) the principal of, premium, if any, and each installment of interest on the outstanding Securities of such series on the due dates thereof and (y) any mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments applicable to the Securities of such series on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of Securities of such series and the Indenture with respect to the Securities of such series;
(ii)the Company has delivered to the Trustee (A) either (x) an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that Holders of Securities of such series will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of the Company’s exercise of its option under this Section 8.05 and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred, which Opinion of Counsel must be based upon a ruling of the Internal Revenue Service to the same effect or a change in applicable federal income tax law or related treasury regulations after the date of this Indenture or (y) a ruling directed to the Trustee received from the Internal Revenue Service to the same effect as the aforementioned Opinion of Counsel and (B) an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the creation of the defeasance trust does not violate the Investment Company Act of 1940 and after the passage of 123 days following the deposit, the trust fund will not be subject to the effect of Section 547 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code or Section 15 of the New York Debtor and Creditor Law;
(iii)immediately after giving effect to such deposit on a pro forma basis, no Event of Default, or event that after the giving of notice or lapse of time or both would become an Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or during the period ending on the 123rd day after the date of such deposit, and such deposit shall not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which the Company is bound;

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(iv)if at such time the Securities of such series are listed on a national securities exchange, the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Securities of such series will not be delisted as a result of such deposit, defeasance and discharge;
(v)the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent to the defeasance and discharge under this Section have been complied with; and
(vi)if the Securities of such series are to be redeemed prior to the final maturity thereof (other than from mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments), notice of such redemption shall have been duly given pursuant to this Indenture or provision therefor satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made.

Section 8.06. Defeasance of Certain Obligations. The Company may omit to comply with any term, provision or condition set forth in, and this Indenture will no longer be in effect with respect to, any covenant established pursuant to Section 2.03(r) and clause (c) (with respect to any covenants established pursuant to Section 2.03(r)) and clause (f) of Section 6.01 shall be deemed not to be an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any series, if:

(a)with reference to this Section 8.06, the Company has deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited with the Trustee (or another qualifying trustee satisfying the requirements of Section 7.11) as trust funds in trust, specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of the Securities of such series and the Indenture with respect to the Securities of such series, (i) money in an amount or (ii) U.S. Government Obligations which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms will provide not later than one day before the due dates thereof or earlier redemption (irrevocably provided for under agreements satisfactory to the Trustee), as the case may be, of any payment referred to in subclause (x) or (y) of this clause (a) money in an amount, or (iii) a combination thereof, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized investment banking firm, appraisal firm or firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge without consideration of the reinvestment of such interest and after payment of all federal, state and local taxes or other charges and assessments in respect thereof payable by the Trustee (x) the principal of, premium, if any, and each installment of interest on the outstanding Securities of such series on the due date thereof or earlier redemption (irrevocably provided for under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee), as the case may be, and (y) any mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments applicable to the Securities of such series and the Indenture with respect to the Securities of such series on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of the Indenture and of Securities of such series and the Indenture with respect to the Securities of such series;
(b)the Company has delivered to the Trustee (i) an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that Holders of Securities of such series will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of the Company’s exercise of its option under this Section 8.06 and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit and defeasance had not occurred and (ii) an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the creation of the defeasance trust does not violate the Investment Company Act of 1940 and after the passage of 123 days following the deposit, the trust fund will not be subject to the effect of Section 547 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code or Section 15 of the New York Debtor and Creditor Law;
(c)immediately after giving effect to such deposit on a pro forma basis, no Event of Default, or event that after the giving of notice or lapse of time or both would become an Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or during the period ending on the 123rd day after the date of such deposit, and such deposit shall not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which the Company is bound;
(d)if at such time the Securities of such series are listed on a national securities exchange, the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Securities of such series will not be delisted as a result of such deposit, defeasance and discharge; and
(e)the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent to the defeasance under this Section have been complied with.


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Section 8.07. Reinstatement. If the Trustee or paying agent is unable to apply any monies or U.S. Government Obligations in accordance with Article 8 by reason of any legal proceeding or by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, the Company’s obligations under this Indenture and the Securities shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to this Article until such time as the Trustee or paying agent is permitted to apply all such monies or U.S. Government Obligations in accordance with Article 8; provided, however, that if the Company has made any payment of Principal of or interest on any Securities because of the reinstatement of its obligations, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights of the Holders of such Securities to receive such payment from the monies or U.S. Government Obligations held by the Trustee or paying agent.

Section 8.08. Indemnity. The Company shall pay and indemnify the Trustee (or other qualifying trustee, collectively for purposes of this Section 8.08 and Section 8.02, the “Trustee”) against any tax, fee or other charge, imposed on or assessed against the U.S. Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Section 8.01, 8.05 or 8.06 or the principal or interest received in respect thereof other than any such tax, fee or other charge which by law is for the account of the Holders of the Securities and any coupons appertaining thereto.

Section 8.09. Excess Funds. Anything in this Article 8 to the contrary notwithstanding, the Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon request of the Company, any money or U.S. Government Obligations (or other property and any proceeds therefrom) held by it as provided in Section 8.01, 8.05 or 8.06 which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized investment banking firm, appraisal firm or firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are in excess of the amount thereof which would then be required to be deposited to effect a discharge or defeasance, as applicable, in accordance with this Article 8.

Section 8.10. Qualifying Trustee. Any trustee appointed pursuant to Section 8.05 or 8.06 for the purpose of holding money or U.S. Government Obligations deposited pursuant to such Sections shall be appointed under an agreement in form acceptable to the Trustee and shall provide to the Trustee a certificate, upon which certificate the Trustee shall be entitled to conclusively rely, that all conditions precedent provided for herein to the related defeasance have been complied with. In no event shall the Trustee be liable for any acts or omissions of said trustee.

ARTICLE 9

AMENDMENTS, SUPPLEMENTS AND WAIVERS

Section 9.01. Without Consent of Holders. The Company and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of any series without notice to or the consent of any Holder:

(a)to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in this Indenture; provided that such amendments or supplements shall not materially and adversely affect the interests of the Holders;
(b)to comply with Article 5;
(c)to comply with any requirements of the Commission in connection with the qualification of this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act;
(d)to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder with respect to the Securities of any or all series by a successor Trustee and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, pursuant to the requirements of Section 7.09;
(e)to establish the form or forms or terms of Securities of any series or of the coupons appertaining to such Securities as permitted by Section 2.03;
(f)to provide for uncertificated or Unregistered Securities and to make all appropriate changes for such purpose; and
(g)to make any change that does not materially and adversely affect the rights of any Holder.


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Section 9.02. With Consent of Holders. Subject to Sections 6.04 and 6.07, without prior notice to any Holders, the Company and the Trustee may amend this Indenture and the Securities of any series with the written consent of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of all series affected by such amendment (each such series voting as a separate class), and the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of all series affected thereby (each such series voting as a separate class) by written notice to the Trustee may waive future compliance by the Company with any provision of this Indenture or the Securities of such series.

Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 9.02, without the consent of each Holder affected thereby, an amendment or waiver, including a waiver pursuant to Section 6.04, may not:

(a)change the stated maturity of the Principal of, or any sinking fund obligation or any installment of interest on, such Holder’s Security;
(b)reduce the Principal amount thereof or the rate of interest thereon (including any amount in respect of original issue discount);
(c)reduce the above stated percentage of outstanding Securities the consent of whose holders is necessary to modify or amend the Indenture with respect to the Securities of the relevant series; and
(d)reduce the percentage in principal amount of outstanding Securities of the relevant series the consent of whose Holders is required for any supplemental indenture or for any waiver of compliance with certain provisions of this Indenture or certain Defaults and their consequences provided for in this Indenture.

A supplemental indenture which changes or eliminates any covenant or other provision of this Indenture which has expressly been included solely for the benefit of one or more particular series of Securities, or which modifies the rights of Holders of Securities of such series with respect to such covenant or provision, shall be deemed not to affect the rights under this Indenture of the Holders of Securities of any other series or of the coupons appertaining to such Securities.

It shall not be necessary for the consent of any Holder under this Section 9.02 to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, supplement or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if such consent approves the substance thereof.

After an amendment, supplement or waiver under this Section 9.02 becomes effective, the Company shall give to the Holders affected thereby a notice briefly describing the amendment, supplement or waiver. The Company will mail supplemental indentures to Holders upon request. Any failure of the Company to mail such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture or waiver.

Section 9.03. Revocation and Effect of Consent. Until an amendment or waiver becomes effective, a consent to it by a Holder is a continuing consent by the Holder and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the Security of the consenting Holder, even if notation of the consent is not made on any Security. However, any such Holder or subsequent Holder may revoke the consent as to its Security or portion of its Security. Such revocation shall be effective only if the Trustee receives the notice of revocation before the date the amendment, supplement or waiver becomes effective. An amendment, supplement or waiver shall become effective with respect to any Securities affected thereby on receipt by the Trustee of written consents from the requisite Holders of outstanding Securities affected thereby.

The Company may, but shall not be obligated to, fix a record date (which may be not less than five nor more than 60 days prior to the solicitation of consents) for the purpose of determining the Holders of the Securities of any series affected entitled to consent to any amendment, supplement or waiver. If a record date is fixed, then, notwithstanding the immediately preceding paragraph, those Persons who were such Holders at such record date (or their duly designated proxies) and only those Persons shall be entitled to consent to such amendment, supplement or waiver or to revoke any consent previously given, whether or not such Persons continue to be such Holders after such record date. No such consent shall be valid or effective for more than 90 days after such record date.


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After an amendment, supplement or waiver becomes effective with respect to the Securities of any series affected thereby, it shall bind every Holder of such Securities unless it is of the type described in any of clauses (a) through (d) of Section 9.02. In case of an amendment or waiver of the type described in clauses (a) through (d) of Section 9.02, the amendment or waiver shall bind each such Holder who has consented to it and every subsequent Holder of a Security that evidences the same indebtedness as the Security of the consenting Holder.

Section 9.04. Notation on or Exchange of Securities. If an amendment, supplement or waiver changes the terms of any Security, the Trustee may require the Holder thereof to deliver it to the Trustee. The Trustee may place an appropriate notation on the Security about the changed terms and return it to the Holder and the Trustee may place an appropriate notation on any Security of such series thereafter authenticated. Alternatively, if the Company or the Trustee so determines, the Company in exchange for the Security shall issue and the Trustee shall authenticate a new Security of the same series and tenor that reflects the changed terms.

Section 9.05. Trustee to Sign Amendments, Etc. The Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel stating that the execution of any amendment, supplement or waiver authorized pursuant to this Article 9 is authorized or permitted by this Indenture, stating that all requisite consents have been obtained or that no consents are required and stating that such supplemental indenture constitutes the legal, valid and binding obligation of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms, subject to customary exceptions. The Trustee may, but shall not be obligated to, execute any such amendment, supplement or waiver that affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

Section 9.06. Conformity With Trust Indenture Act. Every supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article 9 shall conform to the requirements of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect.

ARTICLE 10

MISCELLANEOUS

Section 10.01. Trust Indenture Act of 1939. This Indenture shall incorporate and be governed by the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act that are required to be part of and to govern indentures qualified under the Trust Indenture Act.

Section 10.02. Notices. Any notice or communication shall be sufficiently given if written and (a) if delivered in person when received or (b) if mailed by first class mail 5 days after mailing, or (c) as between the Company and the Trustee if sent by facsimile or electronic transmission, when transmission is confirmed, in each case addressed as follows:

if to the Company:

Energy Recovery, Inc.
1717 Doolittle Drive San Leandro, CA 94577
Facsimile: (510) 483-7371
Attention: Robert Yu Lang Mao, President and CEO

if to the Trustee:

[●]
Facsimile: [●]
Attention: [●]

The Company or the Trustee by written notice to the other may designate additional or different addresses for subsequent notices or communications.


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Any notice or communication shall be sufficiently given (i) to Holders of any Unregistered Securities, by publication at least once in an Authorized Newspaper in The City of New York, or with respect to any Security the interest on which is based on the offered quotations in the interbank Eurodollar market for dollar deposits at least once in an Authorized Newspaper in London, and by mailing to the Holders thereof who have filed their names and addresses with the Trustee pursuant to Section 313(c)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act at such addresses as were so furnished to the Trustee and (ii) to Holders of Registered Securities by mailing to such Holders at their addresses as they shall appear on the Security Register. Notice mailed shall be sufficiently given if so mailed within the time prescribed. Copies of any such communication or notice to a Holder shall also be mailed to the Trustee and each Agent at the same time.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture or any Security, where this Indenture or any Security provides for notice of any event to a Holder of a Registered Global Security (whether by mail or otherwise), such notice shall be sufficiently given if given to the Depositary for such Security (or its designee) pursuant to the applicable procedures of such Depositary, if any, prescribed for the giving of such notice.

Failure to mail a notice or communication to a Holder or any defect in it shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Holders. Except as otherwise provided in this Indenture, if a notice or communication is mailed in the manner provided in this Section 10.02, it is duly given, whether or not the addressee receives it.

Where this Indenture provides for notice in any manner, such notice may be waived in writing by the Person entitled to receive such notice, either before or after the event, and such waiver shall be the equivalent of such notice. Waivers of notice by Holders shall be filed with the Trustee, but such filing shall not be a condition precedent to the validity of any action taken in reliance upon such waiver.

In case it shall be impracticable to give notice as herein contemplated, then such notification as shall be made with the approval of the Trustee shall constitute a sufficient notification for every purpose hereunder.

Section 10.03. Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent. Upon any request or application by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee:

(a)an Officer’s Certificate stating that, in the opinion of the signer, all conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with; and
(b)an Opinion of Counsel stating that, in the opinion of such counsel, all such conditions precedent have been complied with.

Section 10.04. Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion. Each certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than the certificate required by Section 4.04) shall include:

(a)a statement that the person signing such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition and the definitions herein relating thereto;
(b)a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statement or opinion contained in such certificate or opinion is based;
(c)a statement that, in the opinion of such person, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and
(d)a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with; provided, however, that, with respect to matters of fact, an Opinion of Counsel may rely on an Officer’s Certificate or certificates of public officials.


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Section 10.05. Evidence of Ownership. The Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company or the Trustee may deem and treat the Holder of any Unregistered Security and the Holder of any coupon as the absolute owner of such Unregistered Security or coupon (whether or not such Unregistered Security or coupon shall be overdue) for the purpose of receiving payment thereof or on account thereof and for all other purposes, and neither the Company, the Trustee, nor any agent of the Company or the Trustee shall be affected by any notice to the contrary. The fact of the holding by any Holder of an Unregistered Security, and the identifying number of such Security and the date of his holding the same, may be proved by the production of such Security or by a certificate executed by any trust company, bank, banker or recognized securities dealer wherever situated satisfactory to the Trustee, if such certificate shall be deemed by the Trustee to be satisfactory. Each such certificate shall be dated and shall state that on the date thereof a Security bearing a specified identifying number was deposited with or exhibited to such trust company, bank, banker or recognized securities dealer by the person named in such certificate. Any such certificate may be issued in respect of one or more Unregistered Securities specified therein. The holding by the person named in any such certificate of any Unregistered Securities specified therein shall be presumed to continue for a period of one year from the date of such certificate unless at the time of any determination of such holding (1) another certificate bearing a later date issued in respect of the same Securities shall be produced or (2) the Security specified in such certificate shall be produced by some other Person, or (3) the Security specified in such certificate shall have ceased to be outstanding. Subject to Article 7, the fact and date of the execution of any such instrument and the amount and numbers of Securities held by the Person so executing such instrument may also be proven in accordance with such reasonable rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the Trustee or in any other manner which the Trustee may deem sufficient.

The Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company or the Trustee may deem and treat the person in whose name any Registered Security shall be registered upon the Security Register for such series as the absolute owner of such Registered Security (whether or not such Registered Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notation of ownership or other writing thereon) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the Principal of and, subject to the provisions of this Indenture, interest on such Registered Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any agent of the Company or the Trustee shall be affected by any notice to the contrary.

Section 10.06. Rules by Trustee, Paying Agent or Registrar. The Trustee may make reasonable rules for action by or at a meeting of Holders. The Paying Agent or Registrar may make reasonable rules for its functions.

Section 10.07. Payment Date Other Than a Business Day. Except as otherwise provided with respect to a series of Securities, if any date for payment of Principal or interest on any Security shall not be a Business Day at any place of payment, then payment of Principal of or interest on such Security, as the case may be, need not be made on such date, but may be made on the next succeeding Business Day at any place of payment with the same force and effect as if made on such date and no interest shall accrue in respect of such payment for the period from and after such date.

Section 10.08. Governing Law. The laws of the State of New York shall govern this Indenture and the Securities.

Section 10.09. No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements. This Indenture may not be used to interpret another indenture or loan or debt agreement of the Company or any Subsidiary of the Company. Any such indenture or agreement may not be used to interpret this Indenture.

Section 10.10. Successors. All agreements of the Company in this Indenture and the Securities shall bind its successors. All agreements of the Trustee in this Indenture shall bind its successors.

Section 10.11. Duplicate Originals. The parties may sign any number of copies of this Indenture. Each signed copy shall be an original, but all of them together represent the same agreement.

Section 10.12. Separability. In case any provision in this Indenture or in the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.


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Section 10.13. Table of Contents, Headings, Etc. The Table of Contents and headings of the Articles and Sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not to be considered a part hereof and shall in no way modify or restrict any of the terms and provisions hereof.

Section 10.14. Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers and Directors of Company Exempt From Individual Liability. No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement contained in this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto, or in any Security or any coupons appertaining thereto, or because of any indebtedness evidenced thereby, shall be had against any incorporator, as such or against any past, present or future stockholder, officer, director or employee, as such, of the Company or of any successor, either directly or through the Company or any successor, under any rule of law, statute or constitutional provision or by the enforcement of any assessment or by any legal or equitable proceeding or otherwise, all such liability being expressly waived and released by the acceptance of the Securities and the coupons appertaining thereto by the holders thereof and as part of the consideration for the issue of the Securities and the coupons appertaining thereto.

Section 10.15. Judgment Currency. The Company agrees, to the fullest extent that it may effectively do so under applicable law, that (a) if for the purpose of obtaining judgment in any court it is necessary to convert the sum due in respect of the Principal of or interest on the Securities of any series (the “Required Currency”) into a currency in which a judgment will be rendered (the “Judgment Currency”), the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered, unless such day is not a Business Day, then, to the extent permitted by applicable law, the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the Business Day preceding the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered and (b) its obligations under this Indenture to make payments in the Required Currency (i) shall not be discharged or satisfied by any tender, or any recovery pursuant to any judgment (whether or not entered in accordance with subsection (a)), in any currency other than the Required Currency, except to the extent that such tender or recovery shall result in the actual receipt, by the payee, of the full amount of the Required Currency expressed to be payable in respect of such payments, (ii) shall be enforceable as an alternative or additional cause of action for the purpose of recovering in the Required Currency the amount, if any, by which such actual receipt shall fall short of the full amount of the Required Currency so expressed to be payable and (iii) shall not be affected by judgment being obtained for any other sum due under this Indenture.


[Signatures on following page]



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SIGNATURES



IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed, all as of the date first written above.



ENERGY RECOVERY, INC.,
as the Company

By:
Name:    
Title:    

[●],    
as the    
Trustee    

By:
Name:    
Title:    

Exhibit 4.3






ENERGY RECOVERY, INC.,


as the Company


and


[●],
as Trustee


Subordinated Indenture


Dated as of [●]


1



ENERGY RECOVERY, INC.
Reconciliation and tie between Trust Indenture Act of 1939
and Subordinated Indenture

TRUST INDENTURE ACT SECTION
INDENTURE SECTION
Section 310(a) (1)7.11
(a) (2)7.11
(b)7.03
Section 3117.03
Section 312(a)4.03
(b)10.01
Section 313(a)7.06
Section 314(a) (1), (2), (3)4.05
(a) (4)4.04
(c) (1)10.03
(c) (2)10.03
(e)10.04
Section 315(a)7.01
(b)7.05
(e)6.12
Section 316(a) (last sentence)2.09
(a) (1) (A)6.05
(a) (1) (B)6.04
(b)6.07
Section 317(a) (1)6.08
(a) (2)6.09
(b)8.02
Section 318(a)10.01
NOTE: This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be a part of the Indenture.

i




TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

ii




TABLE OF CONTENTS
(continued)
Page

iii




TABLE OF CONTENTS
(continued)
Page

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SUBORDINATED INDENTURE, dated as of [●], between Energy Recovery, Inc., a Delaware corporation, as the Company, and [●], as Trustee.

RECITALS OF THE COMPANY

WHEREAS, the Company has duly authorized the issue from time to time of its subordinated debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series (the “Securities”) up to such principal amount or amounts as may from time to time be authorized in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and to provide, among other things, for the authentication, delivery and administration thereof, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture; and

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid indenture and agreement according to its terms have been done;

NOW, THEREFORE:

In consideration of the premises and the purchases of the Securities by the holders thereof, the Company and the Trustee mutually covenant and agree for the equal and proportionate benefit of the respective holders from time to time of the Securities or of any and all series thereof and of the coupons, if any, appertaining thereto as follows:
ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Section 1.01. Definitions.

Affiliate” of any Person means any other Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such Person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlling”, “controlled by” and “under common control with”) when used with respect to any Person means the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of such Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise.

Agent” means any Registrar, Paying Agent, transfer agent or Authenticating Agent.

Authorized Newspaper” means a newspaper (which, in the case of The City of New York, will, if practicable, be The Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition) and in the case of London, will, if practicable, be the Financial Times (London Edition) and published in an official language of the country of publication customarily published at least once a day for at least five days in each calendar week and of general circulation in The City of New York or London, as applicable. If it shall be impractical in the opinion of the Trustee to make any publication of any notice required hereby in an Authorized Newspaper, any publication or other notice in lieu thereof which is made or given with the approval of the Trustee shall constitute a sufficient publication of such notice.

Board Resolution” means one or more resolutions of the board of directors of the Company or any authorized committee thereof, certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary to have been duly adopted and to be in full force and effect on the date of certification, and delivered to the Trustee.

Business Day” means any day, other than a Saturday or Sunday, that is neither a legal holiday nor a day on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law or regulation to close in The City of New York, with respect to any Security the interest on which is based on the offered quotations in the interbank Eurodollar market for dollar deposits in London, or with respect to Securities denominated in a specified currency other than United States dollars, in the principal financial center of the country of the specified currency.

Capital Lease” means, with respect to any Person, any lease of any property which, in conformity with GAAP, is required to be capitalized on the balance sheet of such Person.


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Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

Company” means the party named as such in the first paragraph of this Indenture until a successor replaces it pursuant to Article 5 of this Indenture and thereafter means the successor.

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which the corporate trust business of the Trustee shall, at any particular time, be administered, which office is, at the date of this Indenture, located at [•].

Currency Agreement” means, with respect to any Person, any foreign exchange contract, currency swap agreement or other similar agreement or arrangement designed to protect such Person or any of its Subsidiaries against fluctuations in currency values to or under which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or a beneficiary on the date hereof or becomes a party or a beneficiary thereafter.

Debt” means, with respect to any Person at any date of determination (without duplication), (i) all indebtedness of such Person for borrowed money, (ii) all obligations of such Person evidenced by bonds, debentures, notes or other similar instruments, (iii) all obligations of such Person in respect of letters of credit or bankers’ acceptance or other similar instruments (or reimbursement obligations with respect thereto), (iv) all obligations of such Person to pay the deferred purchase price of property or services, except Trade Payables, (v) all obligations of such Person as lessee under Capital Leases, (vi) all Debt of others secured by a Lien on any asset of such Person, whether or not such Debt is assumed by such Person; provided that, for purposes of determining the amount of any Debt of the type described in this clause, if recourse with respect to such Debt is limited to such asset, the amount of such Debt shall be limited to the lesser of the fair market value of such asset or the amount of such Debt, (vii) all Debt of others Guaranteed by such Person to the extent such Debt is Guaranteed by such Person, (viii) all redeemable stock valued at the greater of its voluntary or involuntary liquidation preference plus accrued and unpaid dividends and (ix) to the extent not otherwise included in this definition, all obligations of such Person under Currency Agreements and Interest Rate Agreements.

Default” means any event that is, or after notice or passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.

Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in the form of one or more Registered Global Securities, the Person designated as Depositary by the Company pursuant to Section 2.03 until a successor Depositary shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depositary” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Depositary hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any such series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Registered Global Securities of that series.

Designated Senior Indebtedness” means any of the Company’s senior indebtedness that expressly provides that it is “designated senior indebtedness” for purposes of this Indenture (provided that the instrument, agreement or other document creating or evidencing such Senior Indebtedness may place limitations and conditions on the right of such Senior Indebtedness to exercise the rights of Designated Senior Indebtedness).

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles in the United States as in effect as of the date hereof applied on a basis consistent with the principles, methods, procedures and practices employed in the preparation of the Company’s audited financial statements, including, without limitation, those set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as is approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession.


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Guarantee” means any obligation, contingent or otherwise, of any Person directly or indirectly guaranteeing any Debt or other obligation of any other Person and, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, any obligation, direct or indirect, contingent or otherwise, of such Person (i) to purchase or pay (or advance or supply funds for the purchase or payment of) such Debt or other obligation of such other Person (whether arising by virtue of partnership arrangements, or by agreement to keepwell, to purchase assets, goods, securities or services, to take-or-pay, or to maintain financial statement conditions or otherwise) or (ii) entered into for purposes of assuring in any other manner the obligee of such Debt or other obligation of the payment thereof or to protect such obligee against loss in respect thereof (in whole or in part); provided that the term “Guarantee” shall not include endorsements for collection or deposit in the ordinary course of business. The term “Guarantee” used as a verb has a corresponding meaning.

Holder” or “Securityholder” means the registered holder of any Security with respect to Registered Securities and the bearer of any Unregistered Security or any coupon appertaining thereto, as the case may be.

Indenture” means this Indenture as originally executed and delivered or as it may be amended or supplemented from time to time by one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture entered into pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture and shall include the forms and terms of the Securities of each series established as contemplated pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.03.

Interest Rate Agreement” means, with respect to any Person, any interest rate protection agreement, interest rate future agreement, interest rate option agreement, interest rate swap agreement, interest rate cap agreement, interest rate collar agreement, interest rate hedge agreement or other similar agreement or arrangement designed to protect such Person or any of its Subsidiaries against fluctuations in interest rates to or under which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or a beneficiary on the date hereof or becomes a party or a beneficiary thereafter.

Lien” means, with respect to any property, any mortgage, lien, pledge, charge, security interest or encumbrance of any kind in respect of such property. For purposes of this Indenture, the Company shall be deemed to own subject to a Lien any property which it has acquired or holds subject to the interest of a vendor or lessor under any conditional sale agreement, capital lease or other title retention agreement relating to such property.

Officer” means, with respect to the Company, the chairman of the board of directors, the president or chief executive officer, any executive vice president, any senior vice president, any vice president, the chief financial officer, the general counsel, the treasurer or any assistant treasurer, or the secretary or any assistant secretary.

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed in the name of the Company by the chairman of the board of directors, the president or chief executive officer, an executive vice president, a senior vice president or a vice president, the chief financial officer, the treasurer or any assistant treasurer, or the secretary or any assistant secretary, and delivered to the Trustee. Each such certificate shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act, if applicable, and include (except as otherwise expressly provided in this Indenture) the statements provided in Section 10.04, if applicable.

Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion signed by legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel to the Company. Each such opinion shall comply with Section 314 of the Trust Indenture Act, if applicable, and include the statements provided in Section 10.04, if and to the extent required thereby.

Original Issue Date” of any Security (or portion thereof) means the earlier of (a) the date of authentication of such Security or (b) the date of any Security (or portion thereof) for which such Security was issued (directly or indirectly) on registration of transfer, exchange or substitution.

Original Issue Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02.


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Periodic Offering” means an offering of Securities of a series from time to time, the specific terms of which Securities, including, without limitation, the rate or rates of interest, if any, thereon, the stated maturity or maturities thereof and the redemption provisions, if any, with respect thereto, are to be determined by the Company or its agents upon the issuance of such Securities.

Person” means an individual, a corporation, a partnership, a limited liability company, an association, a trust or any other entity or organization, including a government or political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality thereof.

Principal” of a Security means the principal amount of, and, unless the context indicates otherwise, includes any premium payable on, the Security.

Registered Global Security” means a Security evidencing all or a part of a series of Registered Securities, issued to the Depositary for such series in accordance with Section 2.02, and bearing the legend prescribed in Section 2.02.

Registered Security” means any Security registered on the Security Register (as defined in Section 2.05).

Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee, shall mean an officer of the Trustee in the Corporate Trust Office, having direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture, and also, with respect to a particular matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of such officer’s knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

Securities” means any of the securities, as defined in the first paragraph of the recitals hereof, that are authenticated and delivered under this Indenture and, unless the context indicates otherwise, shall include any coupon appertaining thereto.

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

Senior Indebtedness” means the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on all Debt of the Company whether created, incurred or assumed before, on or after the date of this Indenture; provided that such Senior Indebtedness shall not include (i) Debt of the Company that, when incurred and without respect to any election under Section 1111(b) of Title 11, U.S. Code, was without recourse and (ii) any other Debt of the Company which by the terms of the instrument creating or evidencing the same are specifically designated as not being senior in right of payment to the Securities; provided, further, that Senior Indebtedness does not include any obligation to the Company or any Subsidiary.

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, any corporation, association or other business entity of which a majority of the capital stock or other ownership interests having ordinary voting power to elect a majority of the board of directors or other persons performing similar functions are at the time directly or indirectly owned by such Person.

Trade Payables” means, with respect to any Person, any accounts payable or any other indebtedness or monetary obligation to trade creditors created, assumed or Guaranteed by such Person or any of its Subsidiaries arising in the ordinary course of business in connection with the acquisition of goods or services.

Trustee” means the party named as such in the first paragraph of this Indenture until a successor replaces it in accordance with the provisions of Article 7 and thereafter shall mean or include each Person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that series.

Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (15 U.S. Code §§ 77aaa-77bbbb), as it may be amended from time to time.

Unregistered Security” means any Security other than a Registered Security.


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U.S. Government Obligations” means securities that are (i) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America, and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt; provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation or the specific payment of interest on or principal of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.

Yield to Maturity” means, as the context may require, the yield to maturity (i) on a series of Securities or (ii) if the Securities of a series are issuable from time to time, on a Security of such series, calculated at the time of issuance of such series in the case of clause (i) or at the time of issuance of such Security of such series in the case of clause (ii), or, if applicable, at the most recent redetermination of interest on such series or on such Security, and calculated in accordance with the constant interest method or such other accepted financial practice as is specified in the terms of such Security.

Section 1.02. Other Definitions. Each of the following terms is defined in the section set forth opposite such term:

Term
Section
Authenticating Agent
2.02
Cash Transaction
7.03
Dollars
4.02
Event of Default
6.01
Judgment Currency
10.15(a)
mandatory sinking fund payment
3.05
optional sinking fund payment
3.05
Paying Agent
2.05
Payment Blockage Period11.02
record date
2.04
Registrar
2.05
Required Currency
10.15(a)
Security Register
2.05
self-liquidating paper
7.03
sinking fund payment date
3.05
tranche
2.14

Section 1.03. Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act. Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the Trust Indenture Act, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the Trust Indenture Act have the following meanings:

indenture securities” means the Securities;

indenture security holder” means a Holder or a Securityholder;

indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture;

indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee; and

obligor” on the indenture securities means the Company or any other obligor on the Securities.

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All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the Trust Indenture Act, defined by reference in the Trust Indenture Act to another statute or defined by a rule of the Commission and not otherwise defined herein have the meanings assigned to them therein.

Section 1.04. Rules of Construction. Unless the context otherwise requires:

(a)an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;
(b)words in the singular include the plural, and words in the plural include the singular;
(c)“herein,” “hereof” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision;
(d)all references to Sections or Articles refer to Sections or Articles of this Indenture unless otherwise indicated; and
(e)use of masculine, feminine or neuter pronouns should not be deemed a limitation, and the use of any such pronouns should be construed to include, where appropriate, the other pronouns.

ARTICLE 2

THE SECURITIES

Section 2.01. Form and Dating. The Securities of each series shall be substantially in such form or forms (not inconsistent with this Indenture) as shall be established by or pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions or in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in each case with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as are required or permitted by this Indenture and may have imprinted or otherwise reproduced thereon such legend or legends or endorsements, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, as may be required to comply with any law, or with any rules of any securities exchange or usage, all as may be determined by the Officers executing such Securities as evidenced by their execution of the Securities. Unless otherwise so established, Unregistered Securities shall have coupons attached.

Section 2.02. Execution and Authentication. Two Officers shall execute the Securities and one Officer shall execute the coupons appertaining thereto for the Company by facsimile or manual signature in the name and on behalf of the Company. The seal of the Company, if any, shall be reproduced on the Securities. If an Officer whose signature is on a Security or coupon appertaining thereto no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security and such coupon shall nevertheless be valid.

The Trustee, at the expense of the Company, may appoint an authenticating agent (the “Authenticating Agent”) to authenticate Securities. The Authenticating Agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such Authenticating Agent.

A Security and the coupons appertaining thereto shall not be valid until the Trustee or Authenticating Agent manually signs the certificate of authentication on the Security or on the Security to which such coupon appertains by an authorized officer. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security or the Security to which the coupon appertains has been authenticated under this Indenture.

At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series having attached thereto appropriate coupons, if any, executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication together with the applicable documents referred to below in this Section, and the Trustee shall thereupon authenticate and deliver such Securities to or upon the written order of the Company. In authenticating any Securities of a series, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive prior to the authentication of any Securities of such series, and (subject to Article 7) shall be fully protected in relying upon, unless and until such documents have been superseded or revoked:

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(a)any Board Resolution and/or executed supplemental indenture referred to in Sections 2.01 and 2.03 by or pursuant to which the forms and terms of the Securities of that series were established;
(b)an Officer’s Certificate setting forth the form or forms and terms of the Securities, stating that the form or forms and terms of the Securities of such series have been, or, in the case of a Periodic Offering, will be when established in accordance with such procedures as shall be referred to therein, established in compliance with this Indenture; and
(c)an Opinion of Counsel substantially to the effect that the form or forms and terms of the Securities of such series have been, or, in the case of a Periodic Offering, will be when established in accordance with such procedures as shall be referred to therein, established in compliance with this Indenture and that the supplemental indenture, to the extent applicable, and Securities have been duly authorized and, if executed and authenticated in accordance with the provisions of the Indenture and delivered to and duly paid for by the purchasers thereof on the date of such opinion, would be entitled to the benefits of the Indenture and would be valid and binding obligations of the Company, enforceable against the Company in accordance with their respective terms, subject to bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, receivership, moratorium and other similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally, general principles of equity, and covering such other matters as shall be specified therein and as shall be reasonably requested by the Trustee.
The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner which is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

Notwithstanding the provisions of Sections 2.01 and 2.02, if, in connection with a Periodic Offering, all Securities of a series are not to be originally issued at one time, it shall not be necessary to deliver the Board Resolution otherwise required pursuant to Section 2.01 or the written order, Officer’s Certificate and Opinion of Counsel otherwise required pursuant to Section 2.02 at or prior to the authentication of each Security of such series if such documents are delivered at or prior to the authentication upon original issuance of the first Security of such series to be issued.

With respect to Securities of a series offered in a Periodic Offering, the Trustee may rely, as to the authorization by the Company of any of such Securities, the forms and terms thereof and the legality, validity, binding effect and enforceability thereof, upon the Opinion of Counsel and the other documents delivered pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.02, as applicable, in connection with the first authentication of Securities of such series.

If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.03 that the Securities of a series or a portion thereof are to be issued in the form of one or more Registered Global Securities, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver one or more Registered Global Securities that (i) shall represent and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of all of the Securities of such series issued in such form and not yet cancelled, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary for such Registered Global Security or Securities or the nominee of such Depositary, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to such Depositary or its custodian or pursuant to such Depositary’s instructions and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for Securities in definitive registered form, this Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary to the nominee of the Depositary or by a nominee of the Depositary to the Depositary or another nominee of the Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

Section 2.03. Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series. The aggregate principal amount of Securities which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.

The Securities may be issued in one or more series. and shall be subordinated to the Senior Indebtedness pursuant to the provisions of Article 11 hereof. There shall be established in or pursuant to Board Resolution or one or more indentures supplemental hereto, prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, subject to the last sentence of this Section 2.03:

(a)the designation of the Securities of the series, which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from the Securities of all other series;

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(b)any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture and any limitation on the ability of the Company to increase such aggregate principal amount after the initial issuance of the Securities of that series (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, or upon redemption of, other Securities of the series pursuant hereto);
(c)the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable (which date or dates may be fixed or extendible);
(d)the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, on which such interest shall be payable and (in the case of Registered Securities) on which a record shall be taken for the determination of Holders to whom interest is payable and/or the method by which such rate or rates or date or dates shall be determined;
(e)if other than as provided in Section 4.02, the place or places where the principal of and any interest on Securities of the series shall be payable, any Registered Securities of the series may be surrendered for exchange, notices, demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of the series and this Indenture may be served and notice to Holders may be published;
(f)the right, if any, of the Company to redeem Securities of the series, in whole or in part, at its option and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and any terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series may be so redeemed, pursuant to any sinking fund or otherwise;
(g)the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem, purchase or repay Securities of the series pursuant to any mandatory redemption, sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the price or prices at which and the period or periods within which and any of the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the series shall be redeemed, purchased or repaid, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;
(h)if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which Securities of the series shall be issuable;
(i)if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;
(j)if other than the coin or currency in which the Securities of the series are denominated, the coin or currency in which payment of the principal of or interest on the Securities of the series shall be payable or if the amount of payments of principal of and/or interest on the Securities of the series may be determined with reference to an index based on a coin or currency other than that in which the Securities of the series are denominated, the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;
(k)if other than the currency of the United States of America, the currency or currencies, including composite currencies, in which payment of the Principal of and interest on the Securities of the series shall be payable, and the manner in which any such currencies shall be valued against other currencies in which any other Securities shall be payable;
(l)whether the Securities of the series or any portion thereof will be issuable as Registered Securities (and if so, whether such Securities will be issuable as Registered Global Securities) or Unregistered Securities (with or without coupons) (and if so, whether such Securities will be issued in temporary or permanent global form), or any combination of the foregoing, any restrictions applicable to the offer, sale or delivery of Unregistered Securities or the payment of interest thereon and, if other than as provided herein, the terms upon which Unregistered Securities of any series may be exchanged for Registered Securities of such series and vice versa;
(m)whether the Securities of the series may be exchangeable for and/or convertible into the common stock of the Company or any other security;
(n)whether and under what circumstances the Company will pay additional amounts on the Securities of the series held by a person who is not a U.S. person in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge withheld or deducted and, if so, whether the Company will have the option to redeem such Securities rather than pay such additional amounts;
(o)if the Securities of the series are to be issuable in definitive form (whether upon original issue or upon exchange of a temporary Security of such series) only upon receipt of certain certificates or other documents or satisfaction of other conditions, the form and terms of such certificates, documents or conditions;

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(p)any trustees, depositaries, authenticating or paying agents, transfer agents or the registrar or any other agents with respect to the Securities of the series;
(q)provisions, if any, for the defeasance of the Securities of the series (including provisions permitting defeasance of less than all Securities of the series), which provisions may be in addition to, in substitution for, or in modification of (or any combination of the foregoing) the provisions of Article 8;
(r)if the Securities of the series are issuable in whole or in part as one or more Registered Global Securities or Unregistered Securities in global form, the identity of the Depositary or common Depositary for such Registered Global Security or Securities or Unregistered Securities in global form;
(s)